Marketing Scales

Repertory of Marketing Scales

If you are looking for measurement scales to include in your marketing research questionnaire, you can access a collection of multi-item scales that have been utilized in consumer-related surveys and experiments. These scales serve as a valuable tool in marketing research as they allow for quantifying subjective concepts, such as attitudes and perceptions, and provide a standardized way to measure and compare data across different samples and contexts. By utilizing established measurement scales, you can ensure the validity and reliability of your data and draw more accurate conclusions about consumer behavior and preferences.

Note: Items with * are reversed.

Measurement scaleItemsType of scaleAuthor(s)YearJournal
Absorption disposition‒ I can be greatly moved by eloquent or poetic language.
‒ I like to watch cloud shapes change in the sky.
‒ I think that I really know what some people mean when they talk about mystical experiences.
‒ The crackle and flames of a wood fire stimulate my imagination.
‒ I often take delight in small things.
‒ When listening to organ music or other powerful music, I sometimes feel as if I am being lifted into the air.
‒ I can be deeply moved by a sunset.
Likert-type scaleChang2011Journal of Advertising
Abstractness‒ Abstract / Concrete.
‒ Broad / Detailed.
‒ General / Specific.
‒ Indirect / Direct.
Semantic differentialAggarwal & Law2005Journal of Consumer Research
Ad cognition‒ Very unpersuasive / Very persuasive.
‒ Very uninformative / Very informative.
‒ Not very meaningful / Very meaningful.
Semantic differentialTeng et al.2007Journal of Consumer Marketing
Ad comprehensibility‒ Overall, this ad is difficult to comprehend.
‒ Overall, this ad is complicated.
‒ Overall, this ad is unclear.
Likert-type scalePieters et al.2010Journal of Marketing
Ad creativity‒ Not original / Original.
‒ Ordinary / Unique.
‒ Not creative / Creative.
‒ Not relevant / Relevant to me.
‒ Not useful / Useful to me.
Semantic differentialJin et al.2022International Journal of Advertising
Ad credibility‒ Unconvincing / Convincing.
‒ Unbelievable / Believable.
‒ Dishonest / Honest.
Semantic differentialEisend et al.2015Journal of Advertising
Ad credibility‒ I think the ad is credible.
‒ I think the ad is realistic.
‒ I think the ad is convincing.
‒ I think the ad is persuasive.
‒ I think the ad is important.
‒ I think the ad is relevant.
Likert-type scaleSarofim & Cabano2018Marketing Letters
Ad entertainment‒ The ad was attractive.
‒ The ad was enjoyable.
‒ The ad was entertaining.
‒ The ad was fun to watch.
Likert-type scaleEdwards et al.2002Journal of Advertising
Ad informativeness‒ This ad supplies relevant information on products or services.
‒ This ad is a good source of product information.
Likert-type scaleTsai et al.2020Journal of Interactive Advertising
Ad intrusiveness‒ The advertisement was distracting.
‒ The advertisement was disturbing.
‒ The advertisement was forced.
‒ The advertisement was interfering.
‒ The advertisement was intrusive.
‒ The advertisement was invasive.
‒ The advertisement was obtrusive.
Likert-type scaleEdwards et al.2002Journal of Advertising
Ad relevance‒ Not important / Important.
‒ Not relevant / Relevant.
‒ Meaningless / Meaningful.
Semantic differentialDe Keyzer et al.2015Journal of Interactive Advertising
Ad slogan congruence‒ This ad slogan is compatible with the ad.
‒ This ad slogan is a good fit for the ad.
‒ This ad slogan matches the ad well.
Likert-type scaleMisra & Beatty1990Journal of Business Research
Ad trust (Affective dimension)‒ The advertisement is likable.
‒ The advertisement is enjoyable.
‒ The advertisement is positive.
Likert-type scaleSoh et al.2009Journal of Advertising
Advertisement evaluation‒ Pleasant / Unpleasant.
‒ Ordinary / New.
‒ Convincing / Unconvincing.
‒ Appealing / Unappealing.
‒ Lifeless / Lively.
‒ Boring / Interesting.
‒ Meaningful / Meaningless.
Semantic differentialRichins1991Journal of Consumer Research
Advertising realism‒ The advertisement is not realistic / is realistic.
‒ The advertisement could exist unlikely in real life / likely in real life.
Semantic differentialPfiffelmann et al.2023International Journal of Advertising
Advertising value‒ Advertising is valuable.
‒ Advertising is useful.
‒ Advertising is important.
Likert-type scaleDucoffe1995Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising
Aesthetic appeal‒ The product was beautiful.
‒ The product was pretty.
‒ The product was artistic.
‒ The product was aesthetically pleasing.
Likert-type scaleWu et al.2017Journal of Consumer Research
Aesthetic appeal of interior design‒ The interior design of (place/shop) usually attracts my attention.
‒ I notice colors and textures in (place/shop) interiors.
‒ I notice things in (place/shop) interiors and architecture that pass other people by.
‒ Compared to most people, I pay less attention to the interior designs of (place/shop).*
Likert-type scaleBloch et al.1994Journal of Retailing
Aesthetic evaluation‒ Offensive / Enjoyable.
‒ Poor-looking / Nice-looking.
‒ Displeasing / Pleasing.
‒ Unattractive / Attractive.
‒ Bad appearance / Good appearance.
‒ Ugly / Beautiful.
Semantic differentialLam & Mukherjee2005Journal of Retailing
Affect toward monetary compensation‒ Receiving the (amount of money) made me feel happy.
‒ I had unpleasant feelings about receiving the (amount of money).*
‒ Receiving the (amount of money) made me feel good.
‒ Receiving the (amount of money) made me feel bad.*
Likert-type scaleRaghubir & Srivastava2009Journal of Consumer Research
Affective ad avoidance‒ I hate banner ads.
‒ I hate pop-up ads.
‒ I hate any ads on the Web.
‒ It would be better if there were no banner ads on the Web.
‒ It would be better if there were no pop-up ads on the Web.
‒ It would be better if there were no ads on the Web.
Likert-type scaleCho & Cheon2004Journal of Advertising
Affective response (General)‒ Unpleasant / Pleasant.
‒ Dislike very much / like very much.
‒ Left me with a bad feeling / Left me with a good feeling.
Semantic differentialStuart et al.1987Journal of Consumer Research
Anger‒ I am furious.
‒ I am outraged.
‒ I feel indignant.
Likert-type scaleGelbrich2011Journal of Retailing
Anthropomorphizing‒ It looks like a person.
‒ It seems almost as if it has free will.
‒ It seems as if it has intentions.
Likert-type scaleKim & McGill2011Journal of Consumer Research
Anticipated possessive jealousyHow would you feel if your partner were to engage in the following behavior with a very attractive person?
‒ Regularly texting and calling him/her.
‒ Spending time with that person without you.
‒ Exchanging phone numbers with that person.
‒ Showing a great deal of interest or excitement in talking to him/her.
‒ Joking and laughing with them.
"Very pleased” to “Very bothered”
Semantic differentialPollard et al.2022Archives of Sexual Behavior
Anticipated sexual jealousyHow would you feel if your partner were to engage in the following behavior with a very attractive person?
‒ Making out with him/her.
‒ Kissing him/her.
‒ Sexual intercourse.
‒ Light petting.
‒ Dating him/her.
"Very pleased” to “Very bothered”
Semantic differentialPollard et al.2022Archives of Sexual Behavior
AnxietyWhen you read the previous materials about XXX, to what extent did you experience the following feelings?
‒ Anxious.
‒ Tense.
‒ Stressed.
‒ Nervous.
Likert-type scaleWinterich & Haws2011Journal of Consumer Research
Appearance dissatisfaction‒ Ads for clothing items make me feel dissatisfied with the way I look.
‒ Ads for personal care/cosmetics products make me feel dissatisfied with the way I look.
‒ I have wished I looked more like the models in personal care/cosmetics advertisements.
Likert-type scaleRichins1991Journal of Consumer Research
Appearance satisfaction‒ I'm pretty satisfied with my level of physical attractiveness.
‒ I wish I could change the way I look.
Likert-type scaleRichins1991Journal of Consumer Research
Appropriateness of the celebrity‒ Appropriate / Inappropriate.
‒ Fits / Does not fit.
‒ Effective / Not effective.
‒ Poor endorser / Strong endorse.
Semantic differentialEdwards et al.2009Journal for Promotion Management
Aspirational motive‒ I need a life goal.
‒ I need a role model.
‒ I need a career model.
Likert-type scaleHung2014Journal of Advertising
Assumed expensiveness‒ What I would expect to pay for this product is high.
‒ Considering the expected price of this product, the price compared with a product in general is expensive.
‒ Considering the expected price of this product, the price compared with a similar-level product is expensive.
‒ Considering the expected price of this product, the price compared with similar-function product is expensive.
Likert-type scaleWu et al.2012International Journal of Consumer Studies
Attachment anxiety‒ I worry about being alone.
‒ When I’m not involved in a relationship, I feel somewhat anxious and insecure.
‒ I worry that people I have relationships with won’t care about me as much as I care about them.
‒ My desire to be very close sometimes scares people away.
‒ I worry a lot about my relationships
Likert-type scaleJohnson et al.2012Journal of Consumer Psychology
Attention to the product information‒ I paid close attention to the product information.
‒ I was very focused on the product information.
‒ I ignored everything unrelated to the product.
‒ I only looked at the product information.
Likert-type scaleColeman et al.2017Journal of Consumer Research
Attitude strength‒ Not at all important / Extremely important.
‒ Not at all self-relevant / Extremely self-relevant.
‒ Not certain at all / Extremely certain.
‒ Have not thought about it at all / Have thought about it a great deal.
Semantic differentialPriester et al.2004Journal of Consumer Research
Attitude to the website‒ Bad / Good.
‒ Unpleasant / Pleasant.
‒ Irritating / Not irritating.
‒ Dislike / Like.
Semantic differentialMcMillan2002New Media & Society
Attitude toward green marketing claims‒ The green claims are not believable.*
‒ The green claims are exaggerated.*
‒ The green claims are misleading.*
‒ The green claims are real.
Likert-type scaleChang2011Journal of Consumer Affairs
Attitude toward product placement‒ Poduct placement in television programs should be completely banned.*
‒ Poduct placement is cheating consumers.*
‒ I will not watch a movie or television program if I know beforehand that brands are placed prominently in it for commercial purposes.*
‒ Product placement in movies should becompletely banned.*
‒ There is no need to regulate productplacement in television programs in any way.*
Likert-type scaleSabour et al.2015International Journal of Advertising
Attitude toward the advertisement‒ I dislike the ad / I like the ad.
‒ I react unfavorably to the ad / I react favorably to the ad.
‒ I feel negative toward the ad / I feel positive toward the ad.
‒ The ad is bad / The ad is good.
Semantic differentialHolbrook & Batra1987Journal of Consumer Research
Attitude toward the advertisement‒ I got a positive impression.
‒ I found it really something for me.
‒ I found it interesting.
‒ I found it credible.
‒ I found it exaggerated.*
‒ I found it attractive.
Likert-type scaleDe pelsmacker et al.2002Journal of Advertising
Attitude toward the advocated behavior‒ Not at all useful / Extremely useful.
‒ Extremely unfavorable / Favorable.
‒ Extremely bad idea / Good idea.
‒ Not at all important / Very important.
Semantic differentialMaheswaran & Meyers-Levy1990Journal of Marketing Research
Attitude toward the brand‒ Bad / Good.
‒ Unappealing / Appealing.
‒ Unpleasant / Pleasant.
‒ Unfavorable / Favorable.
‒ Unlikeable / Likeable.
Semantic differentialMacKenzie et al.1986Journal of Marketing Research
Attitude toward the brand (Hedonic dimension)‒ Not fun / Fun.
‒ Dull / Exciting.
‒ Not delightful / Delightful.
‒ Not thrilling / Thrilling.
‒ Unenjoyable / Enjoyable.
Semantic differentialVoss et al.2003Journal of Marketing Research
Attitude toward the brand (Utilitarian dimension)‒ Not effective / Effective.
‒ Not helpful / Helpful.
‒ Not functional / Functional.
‒ Not necessary / Necessary.
‒ Not practical / Practical.
Semantic differentialVoss et al.2003Journal of Marketing Research
Attitude toward the manufacturer‒ Compared to other (product type) brands, I hold the manufacturer of the advertised (product type) in high regard.
‒ The company that makes the advertised (product type) deserves my respect.
‒ I can trust the company that makes the advertised (product type).
‒ I admire the advertised (product type) company.
Likert-type scaleDean & Biswas2001Journal of Advertising
Attitude toward the organization‒ I admire organizations such as (X).
‒ I feel inspired by organizations such as (X).
‒ I respect organizations such as (X).
‒ I like organizations such as (X).
Likert-type scaleAaker et al.2010Journal of Consumer Research
Attitude toward the product‒ Unappealing / Appealing.
‒ Bad / Good.
‒ Unpleasant / Pleasant.
‒ Unfavorable / Favorable.
‒ Unlikable / Likable.
Semantic differentialPark et al.2021Journal of Advertising
Attitude toward the product‒ Bad / Good.
‒ Negative / Positive.
‒ Unfavorable / Favorable.
Semantic differentialRucker & Petty2006Spring
Attitude towards the advertisement understanding‒ It is not immediately clear which brand is advertised.*
‒ You have to watch the advertisement frequently to know what it is exactly about.*
‒ This advertisement is confusing.*
Likert-type scaleJanssens & De Pelsmacker2005Journal of Marketing Communications
Avoidance of large food businesses‒ I don’t trust foods that have been produced by large, multinational corporations.
‒ Large, global food systems are destined to fail.
‒ I would go out of my way to avoid buying food from a large retail grocery chain.
‒ I feel uneasy eating something unless I know exactly where it was produced.
Likert-type scaleReich et al.2018Journal of Consumer Research
Behavioral ad avoidance‒ I scroll down Web pages to avoid banner ads.
‒ I close windows to avoid pop-up ads.
‒ I do any action to avoid ads on the Web.
‒ I click away from the page if it displays ads without other contents.
Likert-type scaleCho & Cheon2004Journal of Advertising
Behavioral intentions toward a websiteHow likely would you like to…
‒ Return to this site.
‒ Tell someone else about this site.
‒ Send email to this site.
‒ Bookmark this site.
‒ Post a message about this site on a list or newsgroup that deals with a related subject.
Likert-type scaleMcMillan2002New Media & Society
Behavioral jealousyPlease rate how often you engaged in these behaviours:
‒ I look through X’s drawers, handbag, pockets.
‒ I call X unexpectedly, just to see if he or she is there.
‒ I question X about previous or present romantic relationship.
‒ I question X about his or her telephone calls.
‒ I question X about his or her whereabouts.
‒ I join in whenever I see X talking to a member of the opposite sex.
"Never" to "All the time"
Semantic differentialElphinston et al.2011Australian Journal of Psychology
Belief in luck‒ I believe in luck.
‒ Luck plays an important role in everyone’s life.
‒ Some people are consistently lucky, and others are unlucky.
‒ There is such a thing as luck that favors some people but not others.
Likert-type scaleLaporte & Briers2019Journal of Consumer Research
Body acceptance by othersPlease rate your agreement with each of the following statements while thinking about the important other(s) in your life.
‒ I feel acceptance from important others regarding my body.
‒ I believe that important others value my body as it is, without trying to change it.
‒ I believe that important others trust me to do what is best for myself regarding my body.
‒ I believe that important others are accepting of my body without comparing me to other people.
‒ I don’t have to change my body to feel accepted by important others.
‒ I believe that important others embrace and cherish my body.
‒ Important others help me feel calm and contented toward my body, rather than worried about it. 8.
‒ I believe that important others respect my body.
‒ I get the feeling that important others like my body as it is, even if they don’t say anything.
‒ I believe that important others appreciate my unique body.
‒ Important others help me feel comfortable regarding my body.
‒ I can count on important others to accept my body.
‒ Important others refrain from criticising or critiquing my body.
Likert-type scaleSwami et al.2021Body Image
Body size‒ Very overweight / Very underweight.
‒ Very obese / Very thin.
‒ Much heavier / Much thinner.
Semantic differentialMcFerran et al.2010Journal of Consumer Research
Brand authenticity‒ This brand is genuine.
‒ This brand is authentic.
‒ This brand is real.
Likert-type scalePark et al.2021Journal of Advertising
Brand awareness‒ I am always aware of (X) brand.
‒ Characteristics of (X) brand come to my mind quickly.
‒ I can quickly recall the symbol or logo of (X) brand.
Likert-type scaleKim & Hyun2011Industrial Marketing Management
Brand betrayal‒ To what extent does Brand X intend to take advantage of you?
‒ To what extent does Brand X intentionally mislead you?
‒ To what extent does Brand X try to exploit you?
Likert-type scaleTan et al.2021Journal of Business Research
Brand cognitionBrand X has:
‒ Less salient attributes / More salient attributes.
‒ Low quality / High quality.
Semantic differentialTeng et al.2007Journal of Consumer Marketing
Brand collection exclusivity‒ The products of this collection are exclusive.
‒ The products of this collection can make someone feel like a better customer compared with other customers of this brand.
‒ The products of this collection can give a sense of higher status than other customers of this brand.
‒ The products of this collection can make someone feel superior to other customers of this brand.
Likert-type scaleWang & John2019Journal of Marketing Research
Brand commitment‒ I consider myself to be highly loyal to one brand of (product type).
‒ When another brand is on sale, I will generally purchase it, rather than my usual brand of (product type).*
‒ If my preferred brand of (product type) was not available at the store, it would make little difference to me if I had to choose another brand.*
‒ If my preferred brand of (product type) were not available at the store, I will buy another favorite brand.*
‒ If my preferred brand of (product type) were not available at the store, I will go to another store.
‒ If I had made a brand choice for (product type) before actually making the purchase, I might easily change my intended choice upon receiving discrepant information.*
Likert-type scaleBloemer & Kasper1995Journal of Economic Psychology
Brand commitment‒ If Brand X is not available at the store, it would make little difference to me if I had to choose another brand.*
‒ I consider myself to be highly loyal to Brand X.
‒ When another brand is on sale, I will generally purchase it rather than brand X.*
Likert-type scaleBeatty et al.1988Journal of Business Research
Brand commitment‒ I consider myself to be loyal to (X).
‒ (X) would be my first choice.
‒ I would not buy other brands if (X) is available at the store.
‒ I am willing to pay a higher price for a (X) than I would for other brands.
Likert-type scaleMoreau et al.2011Journal of Marketing
Brand community engagement‒ I benefit from following the brand community’s rules.
‒ I am motivated to participate in the brand community’s activities because I feel better afterwards.
‒ I am motivated to participate in the brand community’s activities because I am able to support other members.
‒ I am motivated to participate in the brand community’s activities because I am able to reach personal goals.
Likert-type scaleAlgesheimer et al.2005Journal of Marketing
Brand competenceI think the advertised Brand (X) is seen as…
‒ Not effective at all / Very effective.
‒ Not competent at all / Very competent.
‒ Not efficient at all / Very efficient.
‒ Not capable at all / Very capable.
Semantic differentialAaker et al.2012Journal of Consumer Psychology
Brand continuity‒ I think a brand is consistent over time.
‒ I think the brand stays true to itself.
‒ Brand offers continuity.
‒ The brand has a clear concept that it pursues.
Likert-type scaleBruhn et al.2012Advances in Consumer Research
Brand credibility‒ My favourite brand delivers what it promises.
‒ Service claims from my favourite brand are believable.
‒ Over time, my experiences with my favourite brand have led me to expect it to keep its promises, no more and no less.
‒ My favourite brand is committed to delivering on its claim, no more and no less.
‒ My favourite brand has a name I can trust.
‒ My favourite brand has the ability to deliver what it promises.
Likert-type scaleNewell & Goldsmith2001Journal of Business Research
Brand disappointment‒ To what extent does Brand X break the promise made to you?
‒ To what extent does Brand X let you down in a moment of need?
‒ To what extent does Brand X fail to support you?
Likert-type scaleTan et al.2021Journal of Business Research
Brand engagement in self-concept‒ I feel as if I have a close personal connection with the brands I most prefer.
‒ I can identify with important brands in my life.
‒ I have a special bond with the brand that I like.
‒ Part of me is defined by important brands in my life.
Likert-type scaleSprott et al.2009Journal of Marketing Research
Brand familiarity‒ I knew quite a bit about the company.
‒ I was very familiar with the company.
‒ I was familiar with the company's products or services.
Likert-type scaleCable & Turban2003Journal of Applied Social Psychology
Brand forgiveness‒ I would probably give the brand another chance.
‒ I would probably buy the brand again despite this experience.
‒ I would be less likely to try the brand again.*
‒ I would forgive the brand and buy it again.
Likert-type scaleFedorikhin et al.2008Journal of Consumer Psychology
Brand heritage‒ X is a brand with tradition.
‒ The brand X is characterized by its own history.
‒ The promises of X are closely linked to its tradition.
‒ The brand X is conscious of tradition.
Likert-type scaleFritz et al.2017European Journal of Marketing
Brand image (Trendy & Refined)‒ Outdated / Trendy.
‒ Unappealing / Sexy.
‒ Inelegant / Elegant.
‒ Practical / Romantic.
‒ Negative / Positive.
Semantic differentialPark & Rabolt2009Journal of Psychology & Marketing
Brand imitation‒ The products in this selection appear to be copying each other.
‒ The products in this selection appear to be imitating each other.
‒ The products in this selection appear to be mimicking each other.
Likert-type scaleKelting et al.2017Journal of the Academy of Marketing
Science
Brand knowledge‒ When compared to other people, I know a lot about this brand.
‒ My friends consider me an expert regarding this brand.
‒ I consider myself very experienced with this brand.
Likert-type scaleAlgesheimer et al.2005Journal of Marketing
Brand loyalty‒ I am willing to make an effort to search for my favorite brand.
‒ I intend to keep purchasing this brand.
Likert-type scaleChauduri & Holbrook2001Journal of Marketing
Brand loyalty intentions‒ I intend to buy this brand in the near future.
‒ I would actively search for this brand in order to buy it.
‒ I intend to buy other products of this brand.
Likert-type scaleAlgesheimer et al.2005Journal of Marketing
Brand naturalness‒ The brand does not seem artificial.
‒ The brand makes a genuine impression.
‒ The brand gives the impression of being natural.
Likert-type scaleBruhn et al.2012Advances in Consumer Research
Brand originality‒ The brand is different from all other brands.
‒ Brand stands out from other brands.
‒ I think the brand is unique.
‒ The brand clearly distinguishes itself from other brands.
Likert-type scaleBruhn et al.2012Advances in Consumer Research
Brand personality (Sincerity)Brand X is:
‒ Down-to-earth
‒ Family-oriented
‒ Small-town
‒ Honest
‒ Sincere
‒ Real
‒ Wholesome
‒ Original
‒ Cheerful
‒ Sentimental
‒ Friendly
Likert-type scaleAaker1997Journal of Marketing Research
Brand personality appel‒ Satisfactory / Unsatisfactory.*
‒ Unpleasant / Pleasant.
‒ Attractive / Unattractive.*
‒ Positive / Negative.*
‒ Bad / Good.
‒ Poor / Excellent.
‒ Undesirable / Desirable.
Semantic differentialFreling et al.2011Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science
Brand popularity‒ This is the most innovative brand in the market.
‒ This is the leading brand in the market.
‒ This brand is growing in popularity.
‒ This is the most popular brand in the market.
Likert-type scaleZhou et al.2010Journal of Academy of Marketing Science
Brand quality‒ The brand is of high quality.
‒ The likely quality of this brand is extremely high.
‒ The likelihood that this brand would be functional is very high.
‒ The likelihood that this brand is reliable is very high.
‒ This brand must be of very good quality.
Likert-type scaleWashburn & Plank2002Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice
Brand relationship quality‒ This brand says a lot about the kind of person I am.
‒ This brand's image and my self-image are similar in many respects.
‒ This brand plays an important role in my life.
Likert-type scaleAlgesheimer et al.2005Journal of Marketing
Brand relevance‒ When I purchase a product, the brand plays—compared to other things—an important role.
‒ When purchasing, I focus mainly on the brand.
‒ To me, it is important to purchase a brand-name product.
‒ The brand plays a significant role as to how satisfied I am with the product.
Likert-type scaleFischer et al.2010Journal of Marketing Research
Brand reliability‒ My experience of the brand has shown me that it keeps its promises.
‒ The brand delivers what it promises.
‒ Brand’s promises are credible.
‒ The brand makes reliable promises.
Likert-type scaleBruhn et al.2012Advances in Consumer Research
Brand trust‒ I can rely on this brand.
‒ I trust this brand.
Likert-type scaleChaudhuri & Holbrook2001International Journal of Advertising
Brand trust‒ I trust this brand.
‒ I rely on this brand.
‒ This is an honest brand.
‒ This brand is safe.
Likert-type scaleChaudhuri & Holbrook2001Journal of Marketing
Brand trust‒ I trust Brand X to offer me new products that I may need.
‒ I trust that Brand X is interested in my satisfaction as a consumer.
‒ Brand X values me as a consumer of its products.
‒ I trust Brand X to offer me recommendations and advice on how to make the most of its product.
‒ Brand X offers me [product type] with a constant level of quality.
‒ I trust that Brand X will help me solve any problem I could have with the product.
Likert-type scaleHayes et al.2017International Journal of Advertising
Brief resilience‒ I tend to bounce back quickly after hard times.
‒ I have a hard time making it through stressful events.*
‒ It does not take me long to recover from a stressful event.
‒ It is hard for me to snap back when something bad happens.*
‒ I usually come through difficult times with little trouble.
‒ I tend to take a long time to get over set-backs in my life.*
Likert-type scaleSmith et al.2008International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Buying impulsiveness‒ I often buy things spontaneously.
‒ "Just do it" describes the way I buy things.
‒ I often buy things without thinking.
‒ "I see it, I buy it" describes me.
‒ "Buy now, think about it later" describes me.
‒ Sometimes I feel like buying things on the spur-of-the-moment.
‒ I buy things according to how I feel at the moment.
‒ I carefully plan most of my purchases.*
‒ Sometimes I am a bit reckless about what I buy.
Likert-type scaleRook & Fisher1995Journal of Consumer Research
Cause-related marketing motive attributions (Values driven)The brand is making the offer because
‒ They feel morally obligated to help.
‒ They have a long-term interest in the community.
‒ Their owners or employees believe in this cause.
‒ They want to make it easier for consumers who care about the cause to support it.
‒ They are trying to give something back to the community.
Likert-type scaleEllen et al.2006Journal of The Academy of Marketing Science
Celebrity authenticity‒ (Celebrity) tries to act in a manner that is consistent with his held values, even if others criticize or reject him for doing so.
‒ (Celebrity) cares about openness and honesty in close relationship with others.
‒ In general, (Celebrity) places a good deal of importance on other understanding who he truly is.
‒ People can count on (Celebrity) being who he is regardless of the situation.
Likert-type scaleIlicic & Webster2016Psychology & Marketing
Celebrity fantasy‒ Sometimes I fantasize to be with (celebrity name). In the fantasy, I am very happy.
‒ Sometimes I fantasize to be with (celebrity name). In the fantasy, I can do the things I really like.
‒ Sometimes I fantasize to be with (celebrity name). In the fantasy, I can do whatever I want to.
Likert-type scaleHung2014Journal of Advertising
Celebrity likeability‒ Very unlikeable / Very likeable.
‒ Very unpleasant / Very pleasant.
‒ Very disagreeable / Very agreeable.
Semantic differentialUm2017Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal
Certainty‒ Not firm / Very firm.
‒ Not certain / Very certain.
‒ Not sure / Very sure.
‒ Not definite / Very definite.
‒ Easily changed / Not easily changed.
Semantic differentialPullig et al.2006Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science
Choice confidence‒ It was impossible to be certain which product fit my preferences best.*
‒ I felt confident when identifying one product that best matched my preferences.
‒ I was convinced to find a product that best fulfilled my needs.
Likert-type scaleHeitmann et al.2007Journal of Marketing Research
Choice difficulty‒ I thought it would be easy to justify a purchase decision, in case someone challenges it.
‒ I was able to see at first sight that some products were superior.
‒ In order to decide for one product, it was not necessary to make any difficult trade-offs.
Likert-type scaleHeitmann et al.2007Journal of Marketing Research
Click intention‒ I would like to click on the ad to learn more.
‒ It is likely that I click on this advertisement.
Likert-type scalePfiffelmann et al.2023International Journal of Advertising
Click intention‒ It is not likely / Likely that I will click this ad.Semantic differentialBleier & Eisenbeiss2015Journal of Retailing
Cognitive ad avoidanceWhen I visit Web sites,
‒ I intentionally ignore any ads on the Web.
‒ I intentionally don’t put my eyes on banner ads.
‒ I intentionally don’t put my eyes on pop-up ads.
‒ I intentionally don’t put my eyes on any ads on the Web.
‒ I intentionally don’t pay attention to banner ads.
‒ I intentionally don’t pay attention to pop-up ads.
‒ I intentionally don’t pay attention to any ads on the Web.
‒ I intentionally don’t click on any ads on the Web, even if theads draw my attention.
Likert-type scaleCho & Cheon2004Journal of Advertising
Cognitive jealousyPlease indicate how often certain thoughts about your partner occurred:
‒ I suspect that X is secretly seeing someone of the opposite sex.
‒ I suspect that X may be attracted to someone else.
‒ I suspect that X may be physically intimate with another member of the opposite sex behind my back.
‒ I think that X is secretly developing an intimate relationship with someone of the opposite sex.
‒ I suspect that X is crazy about members of the opposite sex.
"Never" to "All the time"
Semantic differentialElphinston et al.2011Australian Journal of Psychology
Cognitive resource demands‒ Not a lot of thought / A lot of thought.
‒ Not a lot of focus / A lot of focus.
‒ Not a lot of concentration / A lot of concentration.
Semantic differentialWilcox et al.2011Journal of Consumer Research
Cognitive resource demands‒ Easy to process / Difficult to process.
‒ Easy to understand / Difficult to understand.
‒ Easy to comprehend / Difficult to comprehend.
Semantic differentialWhite & Peloza2009Journal of Marketing
Collectivism‒ Making a lasting contribution to groups that I belong to, such as my work organization, is very important to me.
‒ When I become involved in a group project, I do my best to ensure its success.
‒ I feel great pride when y team or group does well, even if I’m not the main reason for its success.
‒ I would be honored if I were chosen by an organization or club that I belong to, to represent them at conference or meeting.
‒ When I’m part of a team, I am concerned about the group as a whole instead of whether individual team member like me or whether I like them.
Likert-type scaleXie et al.2015Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science
Commitment to the relationshipThe relationship that I have with (X):
‒ Is something I am very committed to.
‒ Is very important to me.
‒ Is something I intend to maintain indefinitely.
‒ Is very much like being family.
‒ Is something I really care about.
‒ Deserves my maximum effort to maintain.
Likert-type scaleGanesh et al.2000Journal of Marketing
Communication overload‒ I feel that in a less connected environment, my attention would be less divided allowing me to be more productive.
‒ I often find myself overwhelmed because technology has allowed too many other people to have access to my time.
‒ I waste a lot of my time responding to emails and voicemails that are business-related but not directly related to what I need to get done.
‒ The availability of electronic communication has created more of an interruption than it has improved communications.
Likert-type scaleKarr-Wisniewski & Lu2010Computers in Human Behavior
Community identification‒ I am very attached to the community.
‒ Other brand community members and I share the same objectives.
‒ The friendships I have with other brand community members mean a lot to me.
‒ If brand community members planned something, I’d think of it as something “we” would do rather than something “they” would do.
‒ I see myself as a part of the brand community.
Likert-type scaleAlgesheimer et al.2005Journal of Marketing
Company-related beliefs‒ Company X is consistent with my ethical values.
‒ The workforce at Company X is diverse.
‒ Company X employees are well compensated.
‒ Company X operate in an environmentally friendly manner.
‒ Company X is successful in terms of profits.
Likert-type scaleBiehal & Sheinin2007Journal of Marketing
Comparison act‒ When I see models in clothing ads, I think about how well or how badly I look compared to the models.
‒ When I see ads for personal care/cosmetics items, I think about how well or how badly I look compared to the models.
Likert-type scaleRichins1991Journal of Consumer Research
Compassionate‒ I am compassionate.
‒ I am sympathetic.
‒ I am warm.
‒ I am helpful.
Likert-type scaleKhan & Dhar2006Journal of Marketing Research
Compatibility of the productThis product:
‒ Fits into my way of living.
‒ Fits the way I do things.
‒ Suits me well.
Likert-type scaleRijsdijk et al.2007Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science
Competence of the business' managersThe way they operate their business made me feel that:
‒ They are experts in this business.
‒ They know what they are doing.
‒ They are competent.
‒ They are proficient.
Likert-type scaleCho2006Journal of Retailing
Competitive intensity‒ Competition in our industry is cutthroat.
‒ There are many “promotion wars” in our industry.
‒ Anything that one competitor can offer, others can match readily.
‒ Price competition is a hallmark of our industry.
‒ One hears of a new competitive move almost every day.
‒ Our competitors are relatively weak.
Likert-type scaleJaworski & Kohli1993Journal of Marketing
Conditional value (green product)‒ I would buy the green product instead of conventional products under worsening environmental conditions.
‒ I would buy the green product instead of conventional products when there is a subsidy for green products.
‒ I would buy the green product instead of conventional products when there are discount rates for green products or promotional activity.
‒ I would buy the green product instead of conventional products when green products are available.
Likert-type scaleLin & Huang2012Journal of Cleaner Production
Consumer susceptibility to normative influence‒ If I want to be like someone, I often try to buy the same brands that they buy.
‒ It is important that others like the products and brands I buy.
‒ I rarely purchase the latest fashion styles until I am sure my friends approve of them.
‒ I often identify with other people by purchasing the same products and brands they purchase.
‒ When buying products, I generally purchase those brands that I think others will approve of.
‒ I like to know what brands and products make good impressions on others.
‒ If other people can see me using a product, I often purchase the brand they expect me to buy.
‒ I achieve a sense of belonging by purchasing the same products and brands that others purchase.
Likert-type scaleBearden et al.1989Journal of Consumer Research
Coupon proneness‒ I enjoy collecting coupons.
‒ Beyond the money I save, redeeming coupons gives me a sense of joy.
‒ I enjoy using coupons, regardless of the amount I save by doing so.
Likert-type scaleXu et al.2010Decision Support Systems
Creativity‒ I consider myself to be a creative person.
‒ Creative endeavors are important to me in my life.
‒ My best friends consider me to be a creative person.
Likert-type scaleHoffman et al.2010Journal of Marketing Research
Creativity authenticity‒ Being personal (about self) / Being impersonal (about others).
‒ Being a form of self-expression / Being a form of interpretation.
‒ Being a form of art / Being a form of entertainment.
‒ Reflecting true inspiration / Reflecting commercial purposes.
‒ Being truthful / Being untruthful.
‒ Being composed with integrity / Being composed without integrity.
Semantic differentialValsesia et al.2016Journal of Consumer Research
Cultural nonacceptance‒ The ad is morally wrong.
‒ The ad is unacceptable to me and my family.
‒ The ad is culturally not acceptable.
Likert-type scaleTerlutter et al.2022Journal of Advertising
Customer inspiration‒ I was inspired to buy something.
‒ I felt a desire to buy something.
‒ My interest to buy something was increased.
‒ I was motivated to buy something.
‒ I felt an urge to buy something.
Likert-type scaleBöttger et al.2017Journal Marketing
Customer orientation‒ Company X has employees who are concerned about customer needs.
‒ Company X has employees who treat customers courteously.
‒ Company X is concerned about its customers.
‒ Company X treats its customers fairly.
‒ Company X takes customer rights seriously.
‒ Company X seems to care about all of its customers regardless of how much money they spend with them.
Likert-type scaleWalsh & Beatty2007Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science
Customer satisfaction‒ My choice to purchase this product was a wise one.
‒ I think that I did the right thing when I purchased this product.
‒ The product exactly meets my needs.
Likert-type scaleCronin et al.2000Journal of Retailing
Customization‒ This website makes purchase recommendations that match my needs.
‒ This website enables me to order products that are tailor-made for me.
‒ The advertisements and promotions that this website sends to me are tailored to my situation.
‒ This website makes me feel that I am a unique customer.
‒ I believe that this website is customized to my needs.
Likert-type scaleSrinivasan et al.2002Journal of Retailing
Decision making avoidance‒ I try to avoid situations that require me to make (Decision X) decisions.
‒ I prefer not to make any decisions related to (Decision X).
‒ I don’t like to think about issues involving (Decision X) decisions.
Likert-type scalePark & Sela2018Journal of Consumer Research
Decision-making style (head vs. heart)My final decision (X) was driven by:
‒ My thoughts / My feelings.
‒ My willpower / My desire.
‒ My prudent self / My impulsive self.
‒ The rational side of me / The emotional side of me.
‒ My head / My heart.
Semantic differentialShiv & Fedorikhin1999Journal of Consumer Research
Delivery condition‒ The product was damaged during delivery.*
‒ The ordered products arrived in a good condition.
‒ The products arrived with a major damage.*
Likert-type scaleShama & Wisenblit2016Journal of Retailing
Dependent-independent attachment style‒ I can only solve problems together with my most important attachment figure.
‒ When I have problems, I can solve them well without my most important attachment figure.*
Likert-type scaleAsendorpf et al.1997International Journal of Advertising
Dependent-independent brand attachment‒ It is important to me to build a relationship with brands.
‒ It is comfortable for me to have intense relationships with brands.
Likert-type scaleDiehl2009Determinanten erfolgreicher Markenbeziehungen
Desirability of the food‒ I felt an impulse to eat the (X) as soon as I saw them.
‒ I felt a strong irresistible urge to eat the (X) when I saw them.
‒ When I saw the (X) I felt a desire to grab and eat them.
‒ I began to salivate as soon as I saw the (X).
Likert-type scaleFedorikhin & Patrick2010Journal of Consumer Research
Difficulty of the task‒ Easy / Hard.
‒ Easy to complete / Effortful to complete.
‒ Took little time / Took much time.
Semantic differentialPocheptsova et al.2010Journal of Marketing Research
Dispositional innovativeness‒ When I see a new product on the shelf, I’m reluctant to give it a try.*
‒ In general, I am among the first to buy new products when they appear on the market.
‒ If I like a brand, I rarely switch from it just to try something new.*
‒ I am very cautious in trying new and different products.*
‒ I am usually among the first to try new brands.
‒ I rarely buy brands about which I am uncertain how they will perform.*
‒ I enjoy taking chances in buying new products.
‒ I do not like to buy a new product before other people do.*
Likert-type scaleSteenkamp & Gielens2003Journal of Consumer Research
Ease of use‒ The (sercice) is easy to use.
‒ The (sercice) offers clear and understandable interaction.
‒ It is easy to make the service do what I want it to do.
‒ The (sercice) is easy to learn.
Likert-type scaleRevels et al.2010Australasian Marketing Journal
Electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) intention‒ Unlikely / Likely.
‒ Improbable / Probable.
‒ Impossible / Possible.
Semantic differentialSohn2009Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication
Emotional brand attachment‒ No other brand can take the place of this brand.
‒ I feel like I am missing out if I haven’t got this brand.
‒ I am very attached to this brand.
Likert-type scaleThomson et al.2005Journal of Consumer Psychology
Emotional empathy‒ I would describe myself as a pretty soft-hearted person.
‒ Other people’s misfortunes disturb me a great deal.
‒ I often have tender, concerned feelings for people less fortunate than me.
‒ When I see someone being taken advantage of, I feel kind of protective toward them.
‒ I am often quite touched by things I see happen.
Likert-type scaleMcBane1995Psychology & Marketing
Emotional exhaustion at work‒ I feel emotionally drained from my work.
‒ I feel used up at the end of the day.
‒ I feel tired when I get up in the morning and have to face another day at work.
‒ Working with people all day is a real strain for me.
‒ I feel burned out from my work.
Likert-type scaleWu et al.2021BMC Nursing
Emotional investment with celebrity‒ I have put a great deal into our relationship that I would lose if I stop being a fan.
‒ I miss (celebrity name) when he/she is not around.
‒ If (celebrity name) was permanently gone from my life, I’d be upset.
Likert-type scaleHung2014Journal of Advertising
Emotional jealousyPlease consider you emotional reactions to these situations:
‒ X comments to you on how great looking a particular member of the opposite sex is.
‒ X shows a great deal of interests or excitement in talking to someone of the opposite sex.
‒ A member of the opposite sex is trying to get close to X all the time.
‒ X is flirting with someone of the opposite sex.
‒ Someone of the opposite sex is dating X.
‒ X hugs and kisses someone of the opposite sex.
‒ X works very closely with a member of the opposite sex.
"Very pleased" to "Very upset"
Semantic differentialElphinston et al.2011Australian Journal of Psychology
Emotional value (green product)‒ Buying the green product instead of conventional products would feel like making a good personal contribution to something better.
‒ Buying the green product instead of conventional products would feel like the morally right thing.
‒ Buying the green product instead of conventional products would make me feel like a better person.
Likert-type scaleLin & Huang2012Journal of Cleaner Production
Employee satisfaction‒ I know what is expected of me at work.
‒ I have the materials and equipment I need to do my work right.
‒ At work, I have the opportunity to do what I do best every day.
‒ In the last seven days, I have received recognition or praise for doing good work.
‒ My supervisor, or someone at work, seems to care about me as a person.
‒ There is someone at work who encourages my development.
‒ At work, my opinions seem to count.
‒ The mission/purpose of my company makes me feel my job is important.
‒ My associates (fellow employees) are committed to doing quality work.
‒ I have a best friend at work.
‒ In the last six months, someone at work has talked to me about my progress.
‒ This last year, I have had opportunities at work to learn and grow.
Likert-type scaleHarter et al.2002Journal of Applied Psychology
Endorsed brand attitude‒ I am confident in the brands endorsed by (celebrity name).
‒ I think the brands endorsed by (celebrity name) have taste.
‒ I am willing to buy the brands endorsed by (celebrity name).
Likert-type scaleHung2014Journal of Advertising
Environmental concern‒ I am worried about the worsening of the quality of environment.
‒ Environment protection is my major concern.
‒ I am emotionally involved in environmental protection issues.
‒ I often think about how the environmental quality can be improved.
‒ I am extremely worried about the state of the world’s environment and what it will mean for my future.
‒ Mankind is severely abusing the environment.
‒ When humans interfere with nature it often produces disastrous consequences.
‒ The balance of nature is very delicate and easily upset.
Likert-type scaleLee & Haley2022International Journal of Advertising
Environmental corporate social responsibility‒ It is important for a company to perform in a manner that is consistent with protecting the environment.
‒ It is important for a company to comply with the various international, governmental, and local environmental regulations.
‒ It is important for a company to offer environmentally friendly products and services.
‒ It is important for a company to have an environmentally related mission.
‒ It is important for a company to make an all out effort to maintain and preserve the environment.
Likert-type scaleHan et al.2020Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management
Epistemic value (green product)‒ Before buying the product, I would obtain substantial information about the different makes and models of products.
‒ I would acquire a great deal of information about the different makes and models before buying the product.
‒ I am willing to seek out novel information.
‒ I like to search for the new and different.
Likert-type scaleLin & Huang2012Journal of Cleaner Production
Evaluation of the portrayals in the ad‒ The portrayals of the actors in the ad are acceptable.
‒ The portrayals of the actors in the ad are contemporary and appropriate.
Likert-type scaleEisend et al.2014Journal of Advertising
Evaluation of the post‒ Unbelievable / Believable.
‒ Untrustworthy / Trustworthy.
‒ Not convincing / Convincing.
‒ Not credible / Credible.
‒ Unreasonable / Reasonable.
‒ Dishonest / Honest.
‒ Unquestionable / Questionable.
‒ Inconclusive / Conclusive.
‒ Not authentic / Authentic.
‒ Unlikely / Likely.
Semantic differentialBeltramini1988Journal of Advertising
Expected relationship closeness‒ The (Brand name) brand and I will have close relationships between us.
‒ I am interested in developing stronger relationships with the (Brand name) brand.
‒ The (Brand name) brand and I could establish deep relationships between us.
‒ I would feel a sense of closeness between the (Brand name) brand and me over time.
Likert-type scalePuzakova & Kwak2021Journal of Advertising
Fear arousal‒ This advertising makes me feel frenzied.
‒ This advertising makes me feel awake.
‒ This advertising makes me feel aroused.
Likert-type scaleMehrabian & Russell1974The MIT Press
Feelings of vulnerability‒ Personalized advertisement on social media makes me feel exposed.
‒ Personalized advertisement on social media makes me feel unprotected.
‒ Personalized advertisement on social media makes me feel unsafe.
‒ Personalized advertisement on social media makes me feel susceptible.
‒ Personalized advertisement on social media makes me feel vulnerable.
Likert-type scaleChen et al.2023Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services
Financial strength‒ Company X tends to outperform competitors.
‒ Company X seems to recognize and take advantage of market opportunities.
‒ Company X looks like it has strong prospects for future growth.
‒ Company X looks like it would be a good investment.
‒ Company X appears to make financially sound decisions.
‒ Company X is doing well financially.
‒ Company X seems to have a clear vision of its future.
Likert-type scaleWalsh & Beatty2007Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science
Firm-specific information control‒ I choose the ways in which my personal information may be used by (website name) for marketing.
‒ The information about me that I supply to (website name) can only be used for advertising in ways I have approved.
‒ I have complete power over how the information I provide (website name) will be later used for promotional purposes.
Likert-type scaleMothersbaugh et al.2012Journal of Service Research
Flush self-image‒ Unattractive / Attractive.
‒ Weak / Strong.
‒ Unsuccessful / Successful.
‒ Not needed / Needed.
‒ Stupid / Intelligent.
Semantic differentialReynolds2002The European Menopause Journal
Food product evaluation‒ Undesirable / Desirable.
‒ Unfavorable / Favorable.
‒ Not at all delicious / Delicious.
‒ Not at all tasty / Tasty.
‒ I will pay very little money for this product / I will pay a lot of money for this product.
Semantic differentialLabroo & Nielsen2010Journal of Consumer Research
Fun‒ Will not be interesting / Will be interesting.
‒ Will not be entertaining / Will be entertaining.
‒ Will not be fun / Will be fun.
‒ Will not be enjoyable / Will be enjoyable.
Semantic differentialDabholkar1994Journal of Consumer Research
Functional value of the product‒ (Product X) fulfill my needs as well.
‒ (Product X) have acceptable standard of quality.
‒ (Product X) offers consistent quality.
‒ The price of (product X) is economical.
‒ The (product X) is good for current price level.
Likert-type scaleWang et al.2013International Journal of Marketing Studies
Functional value-price (green product)‒ The green product is reasonably priced.
‒ The green product offers value for money.
‒ The green product is a good product for the price.
‒ The green product would be economical.
Likert-type scaleLin & Huang2012Journal of Cleaner Production
Functional value-quality (green product)‒ The green product has consistent quality.
‒ The green product is well made.
‒ The green product has an acceptable standard of quality.
‒ The green product would perform consistently.
Likert-type scaleLin & Huang2012Journal of Cleaner Production
Gender perception‒ Masculine / Feminine.
‒ Hard / Soft.
‒ Manly / Lady-like.
‒ Strong / Weak.
‒ For men / For women.
Semantic differentialTill & Priluck2001Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising
Good employer‒ Company X looks like a good company to work for.
‒ Company X seems to treat its people well.
‒ Company X seems to have excellent leadership.
‒ Company X has management who seems to pay attention to the needs of its employees.
‒ Company X seems to have good employees.
‒ Company X seems to maintain high standards in the way that it treats people.
‒ Company X seems to be well-managed.
Likert-type scaleWalsh & Beatty2007Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science
Green brand image‒ The brand is regarded as the best benchmark of environmental commitments.
‒ The brand is professional about environmental reputation.
‒ The brand is well established about environmental concern.
‒ The brand is trustworthy about environmental promises.
Likert-type scaleChen2010Journal of Business Ethics
Green consumer confusion‒ Due to the great similarity of many products with respect to environmental features it is often difficult to detect this product.
‒ It is difficult to recognize the differences between this product and other products with respect to environmental features.
‒ There are so many products you can purchase that you are really confused with respect to environmental features when purchasing this product.
‒ There are so many products that it is difficult to decide which one you should choose with respect to environmental features when purchasing this product.
‒ When purchasing this product you rarely feel sufficiently informed with respect to environmental features.
‒ When purchasing this product, you feel uncertain about its environmental features.
Likert-type scaleChen & Chang2013Journal of Business Ethics
Green perceived risk‒ There is a chance that there will be something wrong with environmental performance of this product.
‒ There is a chance that this product will not work properly with respect to its environmental design.
‒ There is a chance that you would get environmental penalty or loss if you use this product.
‒ There is a chance that using this product will negatively affect the environment.
‒ Using this product would damage your green reputation or image.
Likert-type scaleChen & Chang2012Management Decision
Green perceived value‒ This brand’s environmental functions provide very good value for me.
‒ This brand’s environmental performance meets my expectations.
‒ I purchase this brand because it is environmental friendly.
‒ I purchase this brand because it has more environmental benefit than other products.
Likert-type scaleChen & Chang2012Management Decision
Green social norm‒ Most people I know buy green products.
‒ Most people I know are concerned about issues related to the environment.
‒ Most people I know think it’s important to buy green products.
‒ Most people I know recycle those items that can be recycled.
‒ Most people who are important to me support my effort to use green products for environmental reasons.
‒ Most people who are important to me think I should use green products for environmental reasons.
‒ Most people who are important to me take steps to use green products for environmental reasons.
Likert-type scaleLee & Haley2022International Journal of Advertising
Green social status‒ Supporting environmental protection makes me more socially attractive.
‒ Supporting environmental protection makes me special.
‒ I will be perceived by others as ‘outdated’ if I do not support environmental protection.
‒ Buying green products would help me to feel acceptable.
‒ Buying green products would improve the way that I am perceived.
‒ Buying green products would make a good impression on other people.
‒ Buying green products would give its owner social approval.
Likert-type scaleLee & Haley2022International Journal of Advertising
Green trust‒ You feel that this product's environmental reputation is generally reliable.
‒ You feel that this product's environmental performance is generally dependable.
‒ You feel that this product's environmental claims are generally trustworthy.
‒ This products' environmental concern meets your expectations.
‒ This product keeps promises and commitments for environmental protection.
Likert-type scaleChen2010Journal of Business Ethics
Greenwash‒ This product misleads with words in its environmental features.
‒ This product misleads with visuals or graphics in its environmental features.
‒ This product possesses a green claim that is vague or seemingly un-provable.
‒ This product overstates or exaggerates how its green functionality actually is.
‒ This product leaves out or masks important information, making the green claim sound better than it is.
Likert-type scaleChen & Chang2013Journal of Business Ethics
Health benefits of buying green productsBy purchasing green products, I help to
‒ Improve my own or my family’s health.
‒ Avoid risks that may be associated with non-green products.
‒ Give my children better products.
‒ Reduce the risk for illness in my family.
Likert-type scaleShepherd et al.2005Journal of Human Environment
Health consciousness‒ I reflect about my health a lot.
‒ I am very self-conscious about my health.
‒ I am generally attentive to my inner feelings about my health.
‒ I am constantly examining my health.
‒ I am alert to changes in my health.
‒ I am usually aware of my health.
‒ I am aware of the state of my health as I go through the day.
‒ I notice how I feel physically as I go through the day.
‒ I am very involved with my health.
Likert-type scaleGould1990American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Healthiness‒ I expect this product to be healthy.
‒ I would consider this product as good for me.
‒ The product looks healthy.
‒ This product looks low on calories.
‒ I have an impression that this product is healthy.
‒ This cookie seems to be healthier than other similar cookies.
Likert-type scaleFenko et al.2016Food quality and preference
Homophily with influencers‒ The influencer and I have similar interests.
‒ The influencer and I have similar enthusiasm.
‒ The influencer and I have similar values.
Likert-type scaleKim & Kim2021Journal of Business Research
Humor perception‒ The advertisement was funny.
‒ The advertisement was more serious than it was funny.*
‒ Most people would not find the advertisement to be humorous.*
Likert-type scaleDuncan & Nelson1985Journal of Advertising
Image dynamics‒ Still / Dynamic.
‒ Motionless / Moving.
‒ Static / Active.
‒ Nonenergic / Energic.
‒ Lifeless / Lively.
Semantic differentialYim et al.2021International Journal of Advertising
Impulse buying tendency‒ I often spend more than what I can afford.
‒ I like to indulge myself by buying things for pleasure.
‒ I lose self-control quite frequently.
‒ I often act without thinking about the consequences.
‒ I seldom plan anything in advance.
‒ I often make decisions spontaneously.
Likert-type scaleSharma et al.2014Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science
Inferences of manipulative intent‒ Not trustworthy / Trustworthy.
‒ Manipulative / Not manipulative.
‒ Of low integrity / Of high integrity.
Semantic differentialHossain & Saini2014Marketing Letters
Influencer authenticity‒ This influencer is likely to be open and honest in close relationships with others.
‒ This influencer is likely to place a good deal of importance on people understanding who she truly is.
‒ People can count on this influencer being who she is regardless of the situation.
‒ This influencer is likely to act in a manner that is consistent with her held values, even if others criticize or reject her for doing so.
Likert-type scalePark et al.2021Journal of Advertising
Influencer coolness‒ I think influencer X is extraordinary.
‒ I think influencer X is appealing.
‒ I think influencer X is energetic.
‒ I think influencer X has high status.
‒ I think influencer X is original.
‒ I think influencer X has her/his iconic style.
‒ I think influencer X is popular.
Likert-type scaleReinikainen et al.2021Technological Forecasting and Social Change
Influencer likeability‒ I like this influencer.
‒ I think the influencer could be a friend of mine.
‒ I would like to meet this influencer.
‒ The influencer males me feel comfortable, as if being with friends.
Likert-type scaleJanssen et al.2022International Journal of Advertising
Influencer likeability‒ Cold / Warm.
‒ Unlikeable / Likeable.
‒ Unfriendly / Friendly.
Semantic differentialDimofte et al.2003Journal of Advertising
Influencer trust‒ The influencer can be relied upon on his/her content.
‒ I believe what this influencer says and that he/she would not try to take advantage of the followers.
‒ The influencer is straightforward and honest even though his/her self-interests are involved.
‒ The influencer would not tell a lie even if he/she could gain by it.
Likert-type scaleKim & Kim2021Journal of Business Research
Information credibility‒ The information is believable.
‒ The information is accurate.
‒ The information is trustworthy.
‒ The information is biased.
‒ The information is complete.
Likert-type scaleFlanagin & Metzger2016Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly
Information overload‒ I am often distracted by the excessive amount of information available to me for business decision making.
‒ I find that I am overwhelmed by the amount of information I have to process on a daily basis.
‒ Usually, my problem is with too much information to synthesize instead of not having enough information to make decisions.
Likert-type scaleKarr-Wisniewski & Lu2010Computers in Human Behavior
Innovatveness‒ (Product) seem unique.
‒ (Product) seem new.
‒ (Product) seem creative.
Likert-type scaleHwang et al.2019International Journal of Hospitality Management
Intention to continue to follow brands on social media‒ I plan to (continue to) follow brand on (social media) in the forthcoming months.
‒ I am likely to (continue to) follow brands on (social media) in the forthcoming months.
Likert-type scaleShu-Chuan et al.2015International Journal of Advertising
Intention to try food‒ Very unlikely / Very likely.
‒ Definitely would not try / Definitely would try.
Semantic differentialPuzakova & Kwak2021Journal of Advertising
Interaction anxiety‒ I feel anxious when talking with people I have just met.
‒ I feel nervous when I talk with people I do know very well.
‒ I feel uneasy while making new friends.
‒ I feel tense when I met someone for the first time.
‒ I am afraid of interacting with others.
‒ I feel nervous when I have to talk with others about myself.
Likert-type scaleAlkis et al.2017Computers in Human Behavior
Involvement‒ Important / Unimportant.*
‒ Of no concern / Of concern to me.
‒ Irrelevant / Relevant.
‒ Means a lot to me / Means nothing to me.*
‒ Useless / Useful.
‒ Valuable / Worthless.*
‒ Trivial / Fundamental.
‒ Beneficial / Not beneficial.*
‒ Matters to me / Doesn’t matter.*
‒ Uninterested / Interested.
‒ Significant / Unsignificant.*
‒ Vital / Superfluous.*
‒ Boring / Interesting.
‒ Unexciting / Exciting.
‒ Appealing / Unappealing.*
‒ Mundane / Fascinating.
‒ Essential / Nonessential.*
‒ Undesirable / Desirable.
‒ Wanted / Unwanted.*
‒ Not needed / Needed.
Semantic differentialZaichkowsky1985Journal of Consumer Research
Issue attitude‒ I like (X).
‒ I feel positive toward (X).
‒ (X) is desirable.
‒ (X) is good.
Likert-type scaleCrites et al.1994Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
Job advertisements involvement‒ In my current situation, I am uninterested / interested in this job advertisement.
‒ In my current situation, I am not involved / involved with this job advertisement.
‒ In my current situation, job advertisements are of no concern / of concern to me.
‒ In my current situation, job advertisements are unimportant / important to me.
Semantic differentialPfiffelmann & Pfeuffer2022Journal of Interactive Advertising
Job-pursuit intention‒ I would accept a job offer from this company.
‒ I would make this company one of my first choices as an employer.
‒ If this company invited me for a job interview, I would go.
‒ I would exert a great deal of effort to work for this company.
‒ I would recommend this company to a friend looking for a job.
Likert-type scaleHighhouse et al.2003Educational and Psychological Measurement
Lack of control‒ I feel like I don’t have much control over my life at this moment.
‒ I have the feeling I control my own life.*
‒ I don’t have much influence on the things that happen around me.
‒ At this moment, my life is largely controlled by others.
Likert-type scaleKay et al.2008Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Lighthearted/playful motive‒ Learning the life story of (celebrity name) is a lot of fun.
‒ I feel that (celebrity name) is easygoing.
‒ I find (celebrity name) to be personally attractive.
Likert-type scaleHung2014Journal of Advertising
Likeability of the offer‒ I like this offer.
‒ Accepting this offer would give me pleasure.
‒ I would enjoy this offer.
Likert-type scaleSuwelack et al.2011Journal of Retailing
Likelihood to recommend‒ I say positive things about this brand to other people.
‒ I would recommend this brand to someone who seeks my advice.
‒ I would recommend this brand to others.
Likert-type scaleLi2022International Journal of Advertising
Locus of control‒ Becoming a success is a matter of hard work.
‒ Becoming a success has little or nothing to do with luck.
‒ Getting what I want has little or nothing to do with luck.
‒ I feel that I have little influence over the things that happen to me.*
‒ What happens to me is my own doing.
‒ Most people don’t realize the extent to which their lives are controlled by chance happenings.*
Likert-type scaleKopalle et al.2010Journal of Consumer Research
Loyalty to the influencer‒ I would recommend this influencer to someone who seeks my advice.
‒ I say positive things about this influencer.
‒ I intend to continue following this influencer.
‒ I will continue to watch the posting of this influencer.
Likert-type scaleKim & Kim2021Journal of Business Research
Market mavenism‒ I like introducing new brands and products to my friends.
‒ I don’t talk to friends about the products that I buy.*
‒ My friends and neighbors often come to me for advice.
‒ People seldom ask me for my opinion about new products.*
Likert-type scaleSteenkamp & Gielens2003Journal of Consumer Research
Masculinity‒ Men are typical in solving difficult problems.
‒ It is more important for men to have a professional career.
‒ Men solve problems with logical analysis.
Likert-type scaleSun et al.2019International Journal of Hospitality Management
Masstige‒ I like this brand because of brand knowledge.
‒ I would buy this brand because of its mass prestige.
‒ I would pay a higher price for this brand for status quo.
‒ I consider this brand a top-of-mind brand in my country, state, or district.
‒ I would recommend this brand to friends and relatives.
‒ I believe this brand is known for its high quality.
‒ I believe this brand meets international standards.
‒ I love to buy this brand regardless of price.
‒ Nothing is more exciting than this brand.
‒ I believe that individuals in my country, state, or district perceive this brand as prestigious.
Likert-type scalePaul2019European Management Journal
Meaningful existence‒ I felt that my performance (e.g., catching the ball, deciding whom to throw the ball to) had some effect on the direction of the game.
‒ I felt non-existent during the Cyberball game.
‒ I felt as though my existence was meaningless during the Cyberball game.
Likert-type scaleZadro et al.2004Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Message attention‒ How much attention did you pay to the written message in the ad?
‒ How much did you notice the written message in the ad?
‒ How much did you concentrate on the written message in the ad?
‒ How involved were you with the written message in the ad?
‒ How much thought did you put into evaluating the written message in the ad?
Endpoints: None/Not at all (1) / Very Much (7)
Likert-type scaleLaczniak & Muehling 1994Journal of Advertising
Message credibility‒ Not informative / Informative.
‒ Untrustworthy / Trustworthy.
‒ Inaccurate / Accurate.
‒ Unconvincing / Convincing.
‒ Not believable / Believable.
Semantic differentialHallahan1999Journal of Public Relations Research
Message relevanceWhen I saw the ad, I felt the information in it
‒ Might be important to me.
‒ Might be meaningful to me.
‒ Might be "for me".
‒ Might be worth remembering.
‒ Might be of value to me.
‒ Might be relevant to my needs.
‒ Might be useful to me.
‒ Might be worth paying attention to.
‒ Might be interesting to me.
‒ Would give me new ideas.
Likert-type scaleLaczniak & Muehling 1993Journal of Advertising
Mobile advertising intention‒ I think I will use mobile advertising to consume whenever I have a chance.
‒ I intend to use mobile advertising message for shopping after I receive it.
‒ It is likely that I am going to use mobile advertising to purchase.
Likert-type scaleXu et al.2008Journal of Decision Support Systems
Model attractiveness‒ Ordinary model / Beautiful model.Semantic differentialRichins1991Journal of Consumer Research
Mood‒ Bad / Good.
‒ Sad / Happy.
‒ Tense / Relaxed.
‒ Not aroused / Aroused.
Semantic differentialZadro et al.2004Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Motivation to workout‒ I exercised very hard in today’s workout.
‒ Compared to my usual workout routine, I worked much harder today.
Likert-type scaleGermann & Garvey2022Journal of Advertising
Need for affect‒ It is important for me to be in touch with my feelings.
‒ I think that it is important to explore my feelings.
‒ I am a very emotional person.
‒ It is important for me to know how others are feeling.
‒ Emotions help people get along in life.
‒ Strong emotions are generally beneficial.
‒ I feel that I need to experience strong emotions regularly.
‒ I approach situations in which I expect to experience strong emotions.
‒ I feel like I need a good cry every now and then.
‒ I like to dwell on my emotions.
‒ We should indulge our emotions.
‒ I like decorating my bedroom with a lot of pictures and posters of things emotionally significant to me.
‒ The experience of emotions promotes human survival.
Likert-type scaleMaio & Esses2001Journal of Personality
Need for unique products‒ I am very attracted to rare objects.
‒ I tend to be a fashion leader rather than a fashion follower.
‒ I am more likely to buy a product if it is scare.
‒ I would prefer to have things custom-made than to have them ready-made.
‒ I enjoy having things that others do not.
‒ I rarely pass up the opportunity to order custom features on the products I buy.
‒ I like to try new goods and services before others do.
‒ I enjoy shopping at stores that carry merchandise which is different and unusual.
Likert-type scale3.0.CO;2-B" target="_blank">Lynn & Harris1997Psychology & Marketing
Need to evaluate‒ I form opinions about everything.
‒ I prefer to avoid taking extreme opinions.*
‒ It is vey important to me to hold strong opinions.
‒ I want to know exactly what is good and bad about everything.
‒ I often prefer to remain neutral about complex issues.*
‒ If something does not affect me, I do not usually determine if it is good or bad.*
‒ I enjoy strongly liking and disliking new things.
‒ There are many things for which I do not have a preference.*
‒ It bothers me to remain neutral.
‒ I like to have strong opinions even when I am not personally involved.
‒ I have many more opinions that the average person.
‒ I would rather have a strong opinion that no opinion at all.
‒ I pay a lot of attention to whether things are good or bad.
‒ I only form strong opinions when I have to.*
‒ I like to decide that new things are really good or really bad.
‒ I am pretty much indifferent to many important issues.*
Likert-type scaleJarvis & Petty1996Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Negative afective response‒ I am skeptical.
‒ I am angry.
‒ I am dissatisfied.
Likert-type scaleBabin et al.1995Journal of Business Research
Negative afective response‒ I am upset.
‒ I am angry.
‒ I feel awkward.
‒ I am irritable.
‒ I am displeased.
‒ I am afraid.
‒ I am distressed.
‒ I am disgusted.
Likert-type scaleDu et al.2011Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science
New environmental paradigm‒ The balance of nature is very delicate and easily upset.
‒ Humans have the right to modify the natural environment to suit their needs.
‒ When humans interfere with nature it often produces disastrous consequences.
‒ Plants and animals exist primarily to be used by humans.
‒ Humans must live in harmony with nature in order to survive.
‒ The earth is like a spaceship with only limited room and resources.
‒ Humans need not adapt to the natural environment because they can remake it to suit their needs.
‒ There are limits to growth beyond which our industrialized society cannot expand.
‒ Mankind is severely abusing the environment.
Likert-type scaleSalzberger & Koller2013Journal of Business Research
Normative community pressure‒ In order to be accepted, I feel like I must behave as other brand community members expect me to behave.
‒ My actions are often influenced by how other brand community members want me to behave.
Likert-type scaleAlgesheimer et al.2005Journal of Marketing
Novelty‒ New / Old.*
‒ Original / Unoriginal.*
‒ Unusual / Common.*
Semantic differentialCox & Cox2002Journal of Consumer Research
Online privacy concern‒ The possibility that online firms may use information I give them to make unsolicited contact bothers me.
‒ The thought that Internet retailers may collect and re-use my personal information for marketing to me is troubling.
‒ I am concerned that the personal information that companies acquire from me over the Internet may result in my receiving more promotional offers.
Likert-type scaleMothersbaugh et al.2012Journal of Service Research
Opinion leadership‒ I talk to my friends about clothes very often.
‒ In discussion of clothes, what happens most often is that I tell my friends about clothes.
‒ Overall in all of my discussions with friends, I am often used as a source of advice.
‒ During the past six months, I have told a number of people about clothes.
‒ When I talk to my friends about clothes, I give a great deal of information.
‒ Compared with my circle of friends, I am very likely to be asked about clothes.
Likert-type scaleGentina et al.2014Journal of Business Research
Optimum stimulation level‒ I like to experience novelty and change in daily routine.
‒ I am continually seeking new ideas and experiences.
‒ I like continually changing activities.
‒ When things get boring, I like to try something different.
Likert-type scaleSharma et al.2014Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science
Organization prestige‒ Employees are probably proud to say they work at this company.
‒ This is a reputable company to work for.
‒ This company probably has a reputation as being an excellent employer.
‒ I would find this company a prestigious place to work.
‒ There are probably many who would like to work at this company.
Likert-type scaleHighhouse et al.2003Educational and Psychological Measurement
Organizational attractiveness‒ For me, this company would be a good place to work.
‒ I would not be interested in this company except as a last resort.*
‒ This company is attractive to me as a place for employment.
‒ I am interested in learning more about this company.
‒ A job at this company is very appealing to me.
Likert-type scaleHighhouse et al.2003Educational and Psychological Measurement
Organizational commitment‒ I am willing to put in a great deal of effort beyond that normally expected in order to help this organization be successful.
‒ I talk up this organization to my friends as a great organization to work for.
‒ I feel very little loyalty to this organization.*
‒ I would accept almost any type of job assignment in order to keep working for this organization.
‒ I find that my values and the organization’s values are very similar.
‒ I am proud to tell others that I am part of this organization.
‒ I could just as well be working for a different organization as long as the type of work was similar.*
‒ This organization really inspires the very best in me in the way of job performance.
‒ It would take very little change in my present circumstances to cause me to leave this organization.*
‒ I am extremely glad that I chose this organization to work for over others I was considering at the time I joined.
‒ There’s not too much to be gained by sticking with this organization indefinitely.*
‒ Often, I find it difficult to agree with this organization’s policies on important matters relating to its employees.*
‒ I really care about the fate of this organization.
‒ For me this is the best of all possible organizations for which to work.
‒ Deciding to work for this organization was a definite mistake on my part.*
Likert-type scaleMowday et al.1979Journal of Vocational Behavior
Parasocial interaction‒ He/she makes me feel comfortable, as if I am with a friend.
‒ I think I can understand what kind of person he/she is.
‒ I see him/her as a natural, down-to-earth person.
‒ I look forward to hearing more news about him/her.
‒ If there were a story about his/her on a website, I would read it.
‒ I would like to meet him/her in person.
‒ I feel as if I have known him/her for a long time.
‒ I can relate to him/her.
‒ I hope he/she can achieve her goals.
Likert-type scaleKim2022International Journal of Advertising
Parasocial relationship‒ I look forward to watching influencer X on her/his channel.
‒ If influencer X appeared on another online channel, I would watch that post or video.
‒ When I’m reading or watching influencer X, I feel as if I am part of her/his group.
‒ I think influencer X is like an old friend.
‒ I would like to meet influencer X in person.
‒ If there were a story about influencer X in a newspaper or magazine, I would read it.
‒ Influencer X makes me feel comfortable as if I am with friends.
‒ When influencer X shows me how she/he feels about the brand, it helps me make up my own mind about the brand.
Likert-type scaleMunnukka et al.2019Computers in Human Behavior
Parasocial relationship‒ If the influencer was a real person in my environment, I could disclose negative things about myself honestly and fully to her/him.
‒ If the influencer was a real person in my environment, I could disclose a great deal of things about myself to her/him.
‒ Sometimes, I wish I knew what the influencer would do in my situation.
‒ If the influencer was a real person in my environment, I could disclose positive things about myself honestly and fully to her/him.
‒ Sometimes, I wish I could ask the influencer for advice.
‒ I think the influencer could be a friend of mine.
‒ If the influencer was a real person in my environment, I would be able to count on the influencer in times of need.
‒ If the influencer was a real person in my environment, I would give her/him emotional support.
‒ If the influencer was a real person in my environment, she/he would be able to count on me in times of need.
‒ If the influencer was a real person in my environment, I would will to share my possessions with her/him.
‒ If the influencer was a real person in my environment, I could trust him/her completely.
‒ If the influencer was a real person in my environment, I could have a warm relationship with him/her.
‒ I want to promote the well-being of the influencer.
Likert-type scaleTukachinsky2010American Journal of Media Psychology
Perceived ad clutterWhen I am surfing the Internet,
‒ I think the amount of advertising on the Internet is excessive.
‒ I think the amount of advertising on the Internet is irritating.
‒ I think the Internet is exclusively an advertising medium.
Likert-type scaleCho & Cheon2004Journal of Advertising
Perceived ad irritation‒ The advertisement was irritating.
‒ The advertisement was phony.
‒ The advertisement was ridiculous.
‒ The advertisement was stupid.
‒ The advertisement was terrible.
Likert-type scaleEdwards et al.2002Journal of Advertising
Perceived communal intent of influencers‒ The influencer did not expect to receive benefits from making a post.
‒ The influencer had a genuine desire to share the post to followers.
‒ The influencer made a post with the hopes of benefiting him/herself.*
‒ The influencer made a post in order to get ahead.*
Likert-type scaleNANANA
Perceived congruenceTo what extent is (X) consistent with (Y)?
‒ Inappropriate / Appropriate.
‒ Inconsistent / Consistent.
‒ Irrelevant / Relevant.
‒ Goes not go together / Goes together.
Semantic differentialLee & Thorson2008Journal of Advertising Research
Perceived considerate treatment‒ When I saw the ad, I felt flattered.
‒ When I saw the ad, I felt valued.
‒ When I saw the ad, I felt considered.
Likert-type scalePfiffelmann et al.2023International Journal of Advertising
Perceived creativity‒ Not at all creative / Very creative.
‒ Not at all interesting / Very interesting.
‒ Not at all novel / Very novel.
Semantic differentialMadrigal & King2017Journal of Advertising
Perceived customization valueIn general, I believe that being able to tailor websites that I’m likely to use to my personal preferences is:
‒ Not very beneficial / Very beneficial.
‒ Not very valuable / Very valuable.
‒ Not very advantageous / Very advantageous.
Semantic differentialMothersbaugh et al.2012Journal of Service Research
Perceived model skin‒ Realistic / Flawless.
‒ Blemished / Unblemished.
‒ Not fair skin / Fair skin.
‒ Uneven skin color / Even skin color.
Semantic differentialYang et al.2023International Journal of Advertising
Perceived ownership‒ Although I do not legally own these (X) yet, I have the feeling that they are ‘my’ (X).
‒ The selected (X) incorporate a part of myself.
‒ I feel that these products belong to me.
‒ I feel connected to these (X).
‒ I feel a strong sense of closeness with these products.
‒ It is difficult for me to think of these (X) as mine.*
Likert-type scaleFuchs et al.2010Journal of Marketing
Perceived personalization‒ The ad seemed to be designed specifically for me.
‒ The advertisement targeted me as an unique individual.
Likert-type scaleLi2016Computers in Human Behavior
Perceived quality‒ The likely quality of X is extremely high.
‒ The likelihood that X would be functional is very high.
Likert-type scaleWashburn & Plank2002Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice
Perceived quality‒ This product would be reliable.
‒ This product would be of high workmanship.
‒ This product would be of good quality.
‒ This product would be dependable.
‒ This product would be durable.
Likert-type scaleWu et al.2012International Journal of Consumer Studies
Perceived risk‒ (Product/Service) does not seem to perform well.
‒ The probability that something’s wrong with the performance of (product/service) is high.
‒ Considering the expected level of performance of (product/service), it would be risky to use it.
Likert-type scaleHwang et al.2020Sustainability
Perceived risk in purchase decision‒ Not at all risky / Extremely risky.
‒ Not at all concerned / Highly concerned.
‒ Very unimportant / Very important.
‒ Not at all worried / Very worried.
Semantic differentialSharma et al.2014Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science
Perceived risk of disclosing personal information‒ Providing the mobile applications with my personal information would involve many unexpected problems.
‒ Disclosing my personal information to mobile applications would be risky.
‒ The potential for loss in disclosing my personal information to mobile applications would be high.
Likert-type scaleWang et al.2016International Journal of Information Management
Perceived sacrifice‒ If I purchase this product at expected price, I would not be able to purchase some other products I would like to purchase now.
‒ If I purchase this product at expected price, I would have to reduce the amount of money I spend on the other things for a while.
‒ In general, the monetary sacrifice that I would be making if I purchased this product at expected price is high.
‒ The time I perceived to spend in acquiring this product is long.
‒ The uncertainty I perceived to have to acquire this product is high.
‒ In general, the non-monetary sacrifice that I would be making if I purchased this product is high.
Likert-type scaleWu et al.2012International Journal of Consumer Studies
Perceived scarcity‒ I think that the current supply of this product is small.
‒ I think that this product is selling out soon.
‒ I think that many people will buy this product.
‒ I feel that the limited edition of this product will cause many people to buy.
‒ I think the supplies only limited in 20 will cause a lot of people to buy.
Likert-type scaleWu et al.2012International Journal of Consumer Studies
Perceived taste‒ This product is tasty.
‒ This product is delicious.
‒ I like the taste of this product.
Likert-type scaleKonuk2021Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services
Perceived usefulness‒ With the (service), I can get necessary information when needed.
‒ The (service) makes easier.
Likert-type scaleRevels et al.2010Australasian Marketing Journal
Perceived value‒ This product is very good value for the money.
‒ At the price shown the product is very economical.
‒ The product is considered to be a good buy.
‒ The price shown for the product is very acceptable.
‒ This product appears to be a bargain.
Likert-type scaleDodds et al.1991Journal of Marketing Research
Perceived value‒ This product is good value for money.
‒ The expected price for this product is acceptable.
‒ This product is considered to be a good buy.
‒ This product appears to be a good bargain.
Likert-type scaleWu et al.2012International Journal of Consumer Studies
Perception of luxury brand‒ Inexpensive / Expensive.
‒ Low-end / High-end.
‒ Value-for-money / Luxury.
Semantic differentialHagtvedt & Patrick2016Journal of Retailing
Perception of value of the dealThe advertised product is:
‒ Excellent / Bad buy for the money.
‒ Extremely fair / Unfair price.
‒ Extremely large / No savings.
‒ Extremely good / Not a good value for the money.
Semantic differentialBobinski et al.1996Journal of Retailing
Perceptions of information co-ownership‒ I feel social media has the right to my information on it too.
‒ I feel my information on social media belongs to social media too.
‒ I feel social media co-owns my information.
Likert-type scaleZhu & Kanjanamekanant2021Information & Management
Performance quality‒ Means I will not get what I ordered / Means I will get just what I ordered.
‒ Is something I don’t expect to work very well / Is something I expect to work very well.
‒ Will result in errors in the order / Will not result in errors in the order.
‒ Will be unreliable / Will be reliable.
Semantic differentialDabholkar & Bagozzi2002Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science
Personal cultural orientation (masculinity)‒ Women are generally more caring than men.
‒ Men are generally physically stronger than women.
‒ Men are generally more ambitious than women.
‒ Women are generally more modest than men.
‒ Men are generally more logical than women.
‒ Men are generally more aggressive than women.
Likert-type scaleSharma2010Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science
Personal environmental responsibility‒ Everyone should be responsible for protecting the environment.
‒ Environmental protection is the responsibility of environmental organizations, not me.*
‒ Environmental protection should start immediately.
‒ Environmental protection is the responsibility of the government, not me.*
‒ I should take up the responsibility to protect the environment.
‒ Environmental protection starts with me.
Likert-type scaleLee & Haley2022International Journal of Advertising
Personal performance‒ Overall, I feel I perform my job efficiently.
‒ Overall, I feel I perform my job effectively.
Likert-type scaleKarr-Wisniewski & Lu2010Computers in Human Behavior
Person-organization fit‒ I feel my values “match” or fit this organization and the current employees in this organization.
‒ I think the values and personality of this organization reflect my own values and personality.
‒ The values of this organization are similar to my own values.
‒ My values match those of current employees in this organization.
‒ I feel my personality matches the “personality” or image of this organization.
Likert-type scaleResick et al.2007Journal of Applied Psychology
Pleasure-stimulation‒ I feel I am experiencing new sensations and activities.
‒ I feel intense physical pleasure and enjoyment.
‒ I feel I have found new sources and types of stimulation for myself.
Likert-type scaleThomson2006Journal of Marketing
Positive affective response‒ I am happy.
‒ I am joyful.
‒ I am excited.
Likert-type scaleBabin et al.1995Journal of Business Research
Positive word-of-mouth intention‒ I am likely to say negative / positive things about (brand) to other people.
‒ I am likely to discourage / encourage friends and relatives to buy (brand).
Semantic differentialDe Keyzer et al.2017Online Information Review
Preference for consistency‒ I prefer to be around people whose reactions I can anticipate.
‒ It is important to me that my actions are consistent with my beliefs.
‒ Even if my attitudes and actions seemed consistent with one another to me, it would bother me if they did not seem consistent in the eyes of others.
‒ It is important to me that those who know me can predict what I will do.
‒ I want to be described by others as a stable, predictable person.
‒ Admirable people are consistent and predictable.
‒ The appearance of consistency is an important part of the image I present to the world.
‒ It bothers me when someone I depend upon is unpredictable.
‒ I don’t like to appear as if I am inconsistent.
‒ I get uncomfortable when I find my behavior contradicts my beliefs.
‒ An important requirement for any friend of mine is personal consistency.
‒ I typically prefer to do thigs the same way.
‒ I dislike people who are constantly changing their opinion.
‒ I want my close friends to be predictable.
‒ It is important to me that others view me as a stable person.
‒ I make an effort to appear consistent to others.
‒ I´m uncomfortable holding two beliefs that are inconsistent.
‒ It doesn´t bother me much if my actions are inconsistent.
Likert-type scaleCialdini et al.1995Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Price consciousness‒ I am not willing to go to the extra effort to find lower prices.*
‒ I will grocery shop at more than one store to take advantage of low prices.
‒ The money saved by searching for lower prices is usually not worth the time and effort.*
‒ I would never shop at more than one store to find lower prices.*
‒ The time it takes to find lower prices is usually not worth the effort.*
Likert-type scaleLichtenstein et al.1993Journal of Marketing
Price consciousness‒ I am not willing to go extra effort to find lower prices.*
‒ I will grocery shop at more that one store to take advantage of low prices.
‒ The money saved by finding low prices is usually not worth the time and the effort.*
‒ I would never shop at more than one store to find lower prices.*
‒ The time it takes to find low prices is usually not worth the effort.*
Likert-type scaleLichtenstein et al.1993Journal of Marketing
Price convenience‒ Complicated / Simple.
‒ Impractical / Practical.
‒ Uncomfortable / Comfortable.
‒ Incomprehensible / Comprehensible.
‒ Inconvenient / Convenient.
Semantic differentialWieseke et al.2016Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science
Price-quality inference‒ Generally speaking, the higher the price of a product, the higher the quality.
‒ The old saying "you get what you pay for" is generally true.
‒ The price of a product is a good indicator of its quality.
‒ You always have to pay a bit more for the best.
Likert-type scaleLichtenstein et al.1993Journal of Marketing Research
Price-quality relationship‒ Generally speaking, the higher price of the product, the higher the consumer rating.
‒ Generally speaking, the lower the price of the product, the lower the consumer rating.
‒ The price of this product is a good indicator of its consumer rating.
Likert-type scaleDe Langhe et al.2014Journal of Consumer Research
Pride‒ I am proud of myself.
‒ I am full of pride.
‒ I feel self-confident.
‒ I feel self-assured.
Likert-type scaleGelbrich2011Journal of Retailing
Prior knowledge of videogame playing‒ I play videogames often.
‒ I love playing videogames.
‒ I am comfortable using computers.
‒ I have often played games like this one before.
‒ The game is easy to play.*
Likert-type scaleMurray & Bellman2011Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science
Privacy concerns‒ All things considered, the Internet would cause serious privacy problems.
‒ Compared to others, I am more sensitive about the way online companies handle my personal information.
‒ To me, it is the most important thing to keep my privacy intact from online companies.
‒ I believe other people are not enough concerned with online privacy issues.
‒ I am concerned about threats to my personal privacy today.
Likert-type scaleMalhotra et al.2004Information Systems Research
Privacy concerns‒ I am sensitive about giving out information regarding my preferences.
‒ I am concerned about anonymous information (information collected automatically but cannot be used to identify me, such as my computer, network information, operating system, etc.) that is collected about me.
‒ I am concerned about how my personally un-identifiable information (information that I have voluntarily given out but cannot be used to identify me, e.g., Zip Code, age-range, sex, etc.) will be used by the firm.
‒ I am concerned about how my personally identifiable information (information that I have voluntarily given out AND can be used to identify me as an individual, e.g., name, shipping address, credit card or bank account information, social security number, etc.) will be used by the firm.
Likert-type scaleChellappa & Sin2005Information Technology and Management
Privacy cynicism‒ I have become less interested in online privacy issues.
‒ I doubt the significance of online privacy issues more often.
‒ I have become less enthusiastic in protecting information provided to online vendors.
Likert-type scaleChoi et al.2018Computers in Human Behavior
Privacy protection behaviorTo what extent do you perform the following protection behaviors?
‒ I read the privacy policy of online services.
‒ I encrypt my mobile phone.
‒ I change default privacy settings.
‒ I turn off WiFi.
‒ I turn off tracking (e.g., cookies).
‒ I restrict location based mobile services (e.g., google maps, restaurant finder).
Likert-type scaleOoijen et al.2022Communication Research
Privacy protection by the social networking site‒ (Social media) has adequate security features.
‒ I feel safe in my transactions with (Social media).
‒ I feel like my privacy is protected at (Social media).
‒ I trust (Social media) will not misuse my personal information.
Likert-type scaleWolfinbarger & Gilly2003Journal of Retailing
Private label attitude‒ Buying private label brands makes me feel good.
‒ I love it when private label brands are available for the product categories I purchase.
‒ For most product categories, the best buy is usually the private label brand.
‒ In general, private label brands are poor-quality products.*
‒ Considering value for the money, I prefer private label brands to national brands.
‒ When I buy a private label brand, I always feel that I am getting a good deal.
Likert-type scaleBurton et al.1998Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science
Private self-consciousness‒ I’m always trying to figure myself out.
‒ I think about myself a lot.
‒ I often daydream about myself.
‒ I never take a hard look at myself.*
‒ I generally pay attention to my inner feelings.
‒ I’m constantly thinking about my reasons for doing things.
‒ I sometimes step back (in my mind) in order to examine myself from a distance.
‒ I’m quick to notice changes in my mood.
‒ I know the way my mind works when I work through a problem.
Likert-type scaleScheier & Carver1985Journal of Applied Social Psychology
Product attachment‒ I have no feelings for this product.*
‒ I am emotionally attached to this product.
‒ I am sentimental about this product.
‒ This product reminds me of memories and experiences.
Likert-type scaleSivadas & Venkatesh1995ACR North American Advances
Product capabilities‒ Performs few functions / Performs many functions.
‒ Has few capabilities / Has many capabilities.
‒ Has few advantages / Has many advantages.
Semantic differentialThompson & Norton2011Journal of Marketing Research
Product choice easeChoosing the one product from the selection was:
‒ Not at all difficult / Extremely difficult.*
‒ Not at all confusing / Extremely confusing.*
‒ Not at all overwhelming / Extremely overwhelming.*
Semantic differentialKelting et al.2017Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science
Product evaluation‒ Bad / Good.
‒ Unfavorable / Favourable.
‒ Undesirable / Desirable.
‒ Dislike / Like.
Semantic differentialLam & Mukherjee2006Journal of Retailing
Product knowledge‒ Now very little / Know very much.
‒ Inexperienced / Experienced.
‒ Uninformed / Informed.
‒ Novice buyer / Expert buyer.
Semantic differentialNam-Hyun et al.2013Asian Journal of Communication
Product novelty‒ This product is really “out of the ordinary”.
‒ This product provides something not commonly found.
‒ This product has unique features.
Likert-type scaleIm et al.2015Journal of Business Research
Product quality‒ Inferior quality / Superior quality.
‒ Low quality / High quality.
Semantic differentialBoulding & Kirmani1993Journal of Consumer Research
Product quality‒ The product is reliable.
‒ The product is a high-quality product.
‒ The workmanship of the product is good.
Likert-type scaleDodds et al.1991Journal of Marketing Research
Product quality‒ This product is of high quality.
‒ This is a superior product.
‒ This product is of very good quality.
Likert-type scaleBao et al.2011Journal of Business Research
Product quality‒ Company X offers high quality goods and services.
‒ Company X is a strong, reliable company.
‒ Company X stands behind the products that it offers.
‒ Company X develops innovative goods and services.
Likert-type scaleWalsh & Beatty2007Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science
Product trust‒ Products made in this country are likely to be quite reliable.
‒ Products made in this country can be trusted at times.
‒ Products made in this country always meet my expectations.
‒ I can always trust products made in this country to be good.
Likert-type scaleGarbarino & Johnson1999Journal of Marketing
Proximity of the risk‒ Very soon / Sometime much later.
‒ The near future / The distant future.
Semantic differentialKees2011Journal of Consumer Affairs
Psychological ownership‒ I feel a very high degree of personal ownership of this (object).
‒ I feel like this (object) belongs to me.
‒ I feel a strong sense of closeness with this (object).
‒ This (object) incorporates a part of myself.
Likert-type scaleKirk et al.2018Journal of Consumer Research
Public self-consciousness‒ I’m concerned about my style of doing things.
‒ I care a lot about how I present myself to others.
‒ I’m self-conscious about the way I look.
‒ I usually worry about making a good impression.
‒ Before I leave my house, I check how I look.
‒ I’m concerned about what other people think of me.
‒ I’m usually aware of my appearance.
Likert-type scaleScheier & Carver1985Journal of Applied Social Psychology
Purchase intention‒ I would like to try this product.
‒ I would buy this product if I happened to see it.
‒ I would actively seek out this product in a store in order to purchase it.
Likert-type scalePark et al.2021Journal of Advertising
Purchase intention‒ Never / Definitely.
‒ Definitely do not intend to buy / Definitely intend.
‒ Very low purchase interest / Very high purchase interest.
‒ Definitively not buy it / Definitively buy it.
‒ Probably not buy it / Probably buy it.
Semantic differentialSpears & Singh2004Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising
Purchase intention‒ Not likely at all / Almost sure to buy.
‒ Impossible / Possible.
Semantic differentialLam & Mukherjee2007Journal of Retailing
Purchase intention‒ The likelihood of purchasing this product is: (Very low to Very high).
‒ The probability that I would try this product is: (Very low to Very high).
‒ My willingness to buy this product is: (Very low to Very high).
Semantic differentialDodds et al.1991Journal of Marketing Research
Purchase urgency‒ I think I might lose the opportunity to purchase the product if others bought it first.
‒ I feel there is a lot of competition from other buyers to purchase the advertised product.
‒ In order to get the advertised deal, I think I have to make the purchase before others do.
Likert-type scaleAggarwal et al.2011Journal of Advertising
Reactance to the advertisement‒ I want to resist the advertisement.
‒ I want to dismiss the content of this advertisement.
‒ I want to avoid this kind of advertisement.
Likert-type scaleBleier & Eisenbeiss2015Journal of Retailing
Recognition of emotions‒ I am aware of even subtle emotions as I have them.
‒ When I have offended someone, I am aware of it almost immediately.
‒ I easily recognize my emotions.
‒ I understand why I react the way I do in situations.
‒ I know why my emotions change.
Likert-type scaleTaute et al.2010Psychology & Marketing
Resistance (counterarguing)While reading the post
‒ I found myself actively disagreeing with the message.
‒ I found myself actively agreeing with points made in the message.*
‒ I was looking for flaws in the message’s arguments.
‒ It was easy to agree with the arguments made in the message.*
Likert-type scaleYang2022International Journal of Advertising
Risk‒ Not at all risky / Extremely risky
‒ Not at all concerned / Highly concerned.
‒ Very unimportant / Very important.
‒ Not at all worried / Very worried.
Semantic differentialCampbell & Goodstein2001Journal of Consumer Research
Risk averseness‒ I don’t like to take risks.
‒ Compared to most people I know, I like to “live life on the edge”.*
‒ I have no desire to take unnecessary chances on things.
‒ Compared to most people I know, I like to gamble on things.*
Likert-type scaleBurton et al.1998Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science
Risk severity‒ Not severe at all / Very severe.
‒ Not serious at all / Very serious.
‒ Not frightening at all / Very frightening.
Semantic differentialKees2011Journal of Consumer Affairs
Romantic jealousy-inductionIn the following questions, your romantic partner will be referred to as ‘X’.
‒ I talk with X about my past romantic relationships in order to make X jealous.
‒ I talk with X about my past “hookups” in order to make X jealous.
‒ I talk with X about my past crushes in order to make X jealous.
‒ I talk with X about my previous dates in order to make X jealous.
‒ I talk with X about my opposite-sex friendships in order to make X jealous.
‒ I talk with X about my opposite-sex classmates in order to make X jealous.
‒ I talk with X about my same-sex friendships in order to make X jealous.
‒ I talk with X about me same-sex classmates in order to make X jealous.
‒ I talk with X about my family in order to make X jealous.
‒ I flirt with people in front of X in order to make X jealous.
‒ I tell X when others flirt with me in order to make X jealous.
‒ I talk with X about people whom I find attractive in order to make X jealous.
‒ I tell X when others express romantic interest (e.g., being asked out on a date, being "hit on") in me in order to make X jealous.
‒ While we were casually dating, I would tell X about others whom I had recently gone on dates in order to make X jealous.
‒ I tell X about my previous sexual encounters with others in order to make X jealous.
‒ I tell X about strong emotional connections I have had with others in order to make X jealous.
‒ I falsely tell X that others are romantically interested in me in order to make X jealous.
‒ I falsely tell X that others are sexually interested in me in order to make X jealous.
Likert-type scaleMattingly et al.2012Current Psychology
Satisfaction with service‒ I was satisfied with the service provided.
‒ I was delighted with the service provided.
‒ I was unhappy with the service provided.*
Likert-type scaleVoss et al.1998Journal of Marketing
Satisfaction with the relationship‒ My relationship with (X) has been productive.
‒ The time and effort I spent in the relationship with (X) has been worthwhile.
‒ My relationship with (X) has been satisfactory.
Likert-type scaleAdjei et al.2010Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science
Search intention‒ I have an intention to search more about this new product online.
‒ After viewing the interview, I plan to search more about this new product online.
‒ The interview that I viewed affects my intention to search more about this new product online.
Likert-type scaleKarjaluoto et al.2008Electronic Markets
Secure-anxious attachment style‒ It is difficult for me to rely completely on my most important attachment figure.*
‒ I feel totally accepted by my most important attachment figure.
‒ I can rely on my most important attachment figure.
Likert-type scaleAsendorpf et al.1997International Journal of Advertising
Security importance‒ I am concerned with security.
‒ Protecting myself and my family is very important.
‒ I think a lot about how safe things are.
‒ There is nothing more important than security.
‒ I value security a great deal.
Likert-type scaleRoehm & Roehm2011Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science
Self-brand connection‒ (Brand) reflects who I am.
‒ I can identify with (brand).
‒ I feel a personal connection with (brand).
‒ I could use (brand) to communicate who I am to other people.
‒ I think (brand) would help me become the type of person I want to be.
‒ I consider (brand) to be “me” (it reflects who I consider myself to be or the way I want to present myself to others).
‒ (Brand) suits me well.
Likert-type scaleEscalas & Bettman2003Journal of Consumer Psychology
Self-esteem‒ I feel that I am a good person, as good as others.
‒ I feel that I have a lot of good qualities.
‒ I am able to do things as well as most other people.
‒ I feel I haven't done anything worthwhile.
‒ I like myself.
‒ I feel I am no good at all.
Likert-type scaleDagnan & Sandhu1999Journal of Intellectual Disability Research
Self-esteem‒ On the whole, I am satisfied with myself.
‒ At times, I think that I am no good at all.
‒ I feel that I have a number of good qualities.
‒ I am able to do things as well as most other people.
‒ I feel that I do not have much to be proud of.
‒ I certainly feel useless at times.
‒ I feel that I am a person of worth, at least on an equal plane with others.
‒ I wish I could have more respect for myself.
‒ All in all, I am inclined to feel that I am a failure.
‒ I take a positive attitude toward myself.
Likert-type scaleFranck et al.2008Psychologica Belgica
Self-monitoring‒ In social situations, I have the ability to alter my behavior if I feel that something else is called for.
‒ I can control the way I come across to people, depending on the impression I wish to give them.
‒ When I feel that the image I am portraying isn’t working, I can readily change it to something that does.
‒ I have found that I can adjust my behavior to meet the requirements of any situations I find myself in.
‒ Once I know what the situation calls for, it’s easy for me to regulate my actions accordingly.
Likert-type scaleSharma et al.2014Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science
Self-transformative consumption vision‒ I had images of myself in the ad.
‒ I pictured myself being there on that boat/using the product.
‒ The mental images that came to mind formed a picture in my mind in which I was a part.
‒ I could easily construct a story about myself and the featured destination/product based on the mental images that came to mind.
‒ I was easily able to project myself into the story in the ad.
Likert-type scaleYim et al.2018Journal of Interactive Marketing
Selling self-efficacy‒ I am good at selling.
‒ It’s easy for me to put pressure on customer.*
‒ I know the right thing to do in seeling situations.
‒ I find it difficult to convince a customer that has a different viewpoint than mine.*
‒ My temperament is not well-suited for selling.*
‒ I am good at finding out what customers want.
‒ It’s easy for me to get customers to see my point of view.
Likert-type scaleSujan et al.1994Journal of Marketing
Sense of uniqueness‒ As people get to know me more, they begin to recognize my special features.
‒ I feel unique.
‒ I cannot think of many special characteristics that distinguish me from others.*
‒ I think that the characteristics that make me up are different from others’.
‒ I feel that some of my characteristics are completely unique to me.
Likert-type scaleŞimşek & Yalınçetin2010Personality and Individual Differences
Service qualityThe service quality of this (organization) is:
‒ Very low / Very high.
‒ Poor / Excellent.
‒ Unlikable / Likable.
Semantic differentialLee et al.2000Journal of Services Marketing
Service usage intention‒ I intend the use (sercice) in the next few months.
‒ I plan to use (sercice) in the next few months.
‒ I predict that I would use the (sercice) in the next few months.
Likert-type scaleRevels et al.2010Australasian Marketing Journal
Shame‒ Ashamed.
‒ Embarrassed.
‒ Insecure.
‒ Vulnerable.
‒ Guilty.
Likert-type scaleJohnson et al.2011Journal of Consumer Research
Sharing intention‒ I would share this information with my family.
‒ I would share this information with my peers.
‒ I would talk about this information via social media.
‒ I would show this information to others via social media.
Likert-type scaleCampo et al.2013Social Marketing Quarterly
Situational self-awareness scale‒ Right now, I am keenly aware of everything in my environment.
‒ Right now, I am conscious of my inner feelings.
‒ Right now, I am concerned about the way I present myself.
‒ Right now, I am self-conscious about the way I look.
‒ Right now, I am conscious of what is going on around me.
‒ Right now, I am reflective about my life.
‒ Right now, I am concerned about what other people think of me.
‒ Right now, I am aware of my innermost thoughts.
‒ Right now, I am conscious of all objects around me.
Likert-type scaleGovern & Marsch2001Consciousness and Cognition
Size perception‒ Little / Big.
‒ Small / Large.
‒ Tiny / Huge.
Semantic differentialKetron2018Journal of Retailing
Skepticism toward advertising‒ We can depend on getting the truth in most advertising.
‒ Advertising's aim is to inform the consumer.
‒ I believe advertising is informative.
‒ Advertising is generally truthful.
‒ Advertising is a reliable source of information about the quality and performance of products.
‒ Advertising is truth well told.
‒ In general, advertising presents a true picture of the product being advertised.
‒ I feel I've been accurately informed after viewing most advertisements.
‒ Most advertising provides consumers with essential information.
Likert-type scaleObermiller & Spangenberg1998Society for Consumer Psychology
Smartphone application-based addiction‒ My smartphone is the most important thing in my life.
‒ My smartphone use results in conflicts.
‒ Preoccupying myself with my smartphone is a way of changing my mood.
‒ I fiddle around more and more with my smartphone.
‒ If I cannot use my smartphone when I feel like, I feel sad.
‒ If I try to cut the time I use my smartphone, I end up using it as much or more than before.
Likert-type scaleNurmala et al.2022Heliyon
Smoking intention‒ In the future, you might smoke one puff or more of a cigarette.
‒ You might try out cigarette smoking for a while.
‒ If one of your best friends were to offer you a cigarette, you would smoke it.
Likert-type scalePechmann et al.2003Journal of Marketing
Social & environmental responsibility‒ Company X seems to make an effort to create new jobs.
‒ Company X would reduce its profits to ensure a clean environment.
‒ Company X seems to be environmentally responsible.
‒ Company X appears to support good causes.
Likert-type scaleWalsh & Beatty2007Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science
Social ad skepticism‒ Health-related ads exaggerate the impact my health-related choices have on other people.
‒ In general, health-related ads do not present a true picture of the risks associated with certain behaviors.
‒ The messages conveyed in health-related ads do not show life as it really is.
‒ The consequences shown in most health-related ads are not realistic.
‒ Health-related ads over dramatize the likelihood that others will suffer as a result of an individual's behavior.
‒ My personal choices do not affect others as much as the health-related ads claim that they do.
‒ Health-related ads have unrealistic expectations with regards to the type of healthy behaviors I should practice.
‒ Health-related ads are nothing more than guilt trips.
Likert-type scaleThakor & Goneau-Lessard2008Journal of Business Research
Social anxiety‒ It makes me time to get over my shyness in new situations.
‒ It’s hard for me to work when someone is watching me.
‒ I get embarrassed very easily.
‒ It’s easy for me to talk to strangers.*
‒ I feel nervous when I speak in front of a group.
‒ Large group male me nervous.
Likert-type scaleScheier & Carver1985Journal of Applied Social Psychology
Social bonding importance‒ Establishing a personal relationship between (person X) and myself is very important to me.
‒ Sharing personal advice or support with (person X) is very important to me.
‒ Developing friendship with (person X) is very important to me.
Likert-type scaleAuh et al.2019Journal of Marketing Research
Social comparisonWhen I am with other people I generally feel:
‒ Worse than other people / Better than other people.
‒ Not as good at things / Better at things.
‒ Less friendly / More friendly.
‒ Less shy / More shy.
‒ On your own / With other people.
‒ Different / Same.
Semantic differentialDagnan & Sandhu1999Journal of Intellectual Disability Research
Social identification‒ I consider myself to be this type of person.
‒ I belong to this group.
‒ I fit in with this group of people.
Likert-type scaleEscalas & Bettman2005Journal of Consumer Research
Social identity (centrality)‒ I often think about the fact that I am a member of my ethnic group.
‒ The fact that I am a member of my ethnic group is an important part of my identity.
‒ Being a member of my ethnic group is an important part of how I see myself.
Likert-type scaleShao et al.2023International Journal of Advertising
Social identity (in-group affect)‒ In general, I’m glad to be a member of my ethnic group.
‒ Generally, I feel good when I think about myself as a member of my ethnic group.
‒ I often regret that I am a member of my ethnic group.
‒ I don’t feel good about being a member of my ethnic group.
Likert-type scaleShao et al.2023International Journal of Advertising
Social identity (in-group ties)‒ I feel strong ties to other members of my ethnic group.
‒ I don’t feel like I fit in with other members of my ethnic group.
‒ I find it difficult to form a bond with other members of my ethnic group.
‒ I don’t feel a sense of being ‘‘connected’’ with other members of my ethnic group.
Likert-type scaleShao et al.2023International Journal of Advertising
Social impression‒ Socially unacceptable / Socially acceptable.
‒ Unfashionable / Fashionable.
‒ Undesired impression / Desired impression.
‒ Disapproved by others / Approved by others.
‒ Unpopular / Popular.
Semantic differentialLam & Mukherjee2005Journal of Retailing
Social media engagement‒ How likely are you to like the post? (Not at all to Very much).
‒ How likely are you to comment on this post? (Not at all to Very much).
Semantic differentialNANANA
Social norm‒ Most people I know buy green products.
‒ Most people I know are concerned about issues related to the environment.
‒ Most people I know think it’s important to buy green products.
‒ Most people I know recycle those items that can be recycled.
‒ Most people who are important to me support my effort to use green products for environmental reasons.
‒ Most people who are important to me think I should use green products for environmental reasons.
‒ Most people who are important to me take steps to use green products for environmental reasons.
Likert-type scaleGleim et al.2013Journal of Retailing
Social presence‒ I felt like I was watching the video with friends.
‒ I felt like I was physically communicating with others during the interview.
Likert-type scaleLim et al.2015Computers in Human Behavior
Social relevance‒ This ad is related to my social network.
‒ This ad is related to my friends.
‒ This ad is related to my social relationships.
Likert-type scaleGeng et al.2021Computers in Human Behavior
Social value (green product)‒ Buying the green product would help me to feel acceptable.
‒ Buying the green product would improve the way that I am perceived.
‒ Buying the green product would make a good impression on other people.
‒ Buying the green product would give its owner social approval.
Likert-type scaleLin & Huang2012Journal of Cleaner Production
Socially responsible image‒ Company X is a socially responsible company.
‒ Company X is concerned to improve the well-being of society.
‒ Company X behaves responsibly regarding the environment.
‒ Company X has made a real difference through its socially responsible actions.
‒ Company X supports good causes.
Likert-type scaleSung et al.2022International Journal of Advertising
Source attractiveness‒ Unattractive / Attractive.
‒ Not classy / Classy.
‒ Ugly / Beautiful.
‒ Plain / Elegant.
‒ Not sexy / Sexy.
Semantic differentialOhanian1990Journal of Advertising
Source expertise‒ Not an expert / Expert.
‒ Inexperienced / Experienced.
‒ Unknowledgable / Knowledgable.
‒ Unqualified / Qualified.
‒ Unskilled / Skilled.
Semantic differentialOhanian1990Journal of Advertising
Source trustworthiness‒ Undependable / Dependable.
‒ Dishonest / Honest.
‒ Unreliable / Reliable.
‒ Insincere / Sincere.
‒ Untrustworthy / Trustworthy.
Semantic differentialOhanian1990Journal of Advertising
Stimulation potential of activities‒ Unstimulating / Stimulating.
‒ Low activity / High activity.
‒ Not exciting / Exciting.
Semantic differentialRoehm & Roehm2005Journal of Consumer Research
Store image‒ Modern / Old-fashioned.*
‒ Dull/ Interesting.
‒ Unsophisticated / Sophisticated.
‒ Economical / Extravagant.
Semantic differentialBrüggen et al.2011Journal of Marketing
Subscribe intention‒ I intend to subscribe to receive information about this new product.
‒ It is likely that I will try to subscribe to receive information about this new product.
‒ I anticipate that I will subscribe to receive information about this new product.
Likert-type scaleKwong & Park2008The Service Industries Journal
Sustainable consumption behavior‒ I always try hard to reduce miss-use of goods and services (e.g. I switch off light and fan when I am not in the room).
‒ I recycle daily newspaper (e.g. use as pet’s litter box, etc.).
‒ I avoid being extravagant in my purchase.
‒ I avoid over use/consumption of goods and services (e.g. take print only when needed).
‒ I reuse paper to write on the other side.
‒ While dining in restaurant, I order food(s) only the amount that I can eat in order to avoid wasting food.
‒ I choose to buy product(s) with biodegradable container or packaging.
‒ I don’t like to waste food or beverage.
‒ I recycle my old stuffs in every possible ways (e.g. distribute old clothes among needy people).
‒ I reuse shopping bag(s) every time go for shopping.
‒ I plan carefully before I purchase product of service.
Likert-type scaleQuoquab et al.2019Journal of Retailing
Switching intention‒ I use the services of this service provider because it is the best choice for me.
‒ To me, the service quality this service provider offers is higher than the service quality of other service providers.
‒ I have grown to like this service provider more than other service providers in this category.
‒ This service provider is my preferred service provider in this category.
‒ I have acquired the services of this organization less frequently than before.
‒ I have switched to a competitor of the service organization.
‒ I will not acquire services of this organization anymore in the future.
‒ I intend to switch to a competitor of the service organization in the future.
Likert-type scaleBougie et al.2003Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science
Synchronicity‒ I felt communicating with other viewers was fast.
‒ I felt I was able to communicate with other viewers without delay.
‒ When I typed up my comments, I felt I was getting instantaneous interaction.
Likert-type scaleLiu2003Journal of Advertising Research
Task interdependence‒ I work fairly independently of others in my work.*
‒ I frequently must coordinate my efforts with others.
‒ In order to do my job, I need to spend most of my time talking to other people.
‒ I can plan my own work with little need to coordinate with others.*
‒ My own performance is dependent on receiving accurate knowledge from others.
Likert-type scaleLin & Huang2008Information & Management
Team loyalty‒ I intend to attend future games of (team name).
‒ I would likely recommend (team name) games to other people.
‒ I intend to purchase other products and services of (team name).
‒ I would be willing to defend (team name) publicly, even if it caused controversy.
‒ I would watch (team name) games regardless of which team they were playing.
Likert-type scaleBiscaia et al.2013Journal of Sport Management
Technology dependence‒ When I do not have access to the information technology tools I
use to support my job activities, this prevents me from being productive.
‒ Much of the business process involved in doing my job is embedded in the systems I use. Therefore, performing my responsibilities without these tools would be very difficult.
‒ I rely on technology to the point that if the system is functioning slowly or unavailable, it directly affects my job performance.
‒ Information technology problems such as software crashes, hardware failures, and slow network performance interrupt me from getting my job done.
Likert-type scaleKarr-Wisniewski & Lu2010Computers in Human Behavior
Telepresence‒ This ad enable me to get information about the product as if I am in a physical store.
‒ I can evaluate the product via this ad as I do in the physical store.
‒ This ad make me feel like I am looking at the product in a physical store.
Likert-type scaleLim & Ayyagari2018Computers in Human Behavior
Transportation with social media post‒ I was mentally involved in the post.
‒ While thinking about the post, I could easily picture the events in it taking place.
‒ I could picture myself in the scene shown in the post.
‒ The post affected me emotionally.
‒ While reading the post, I had a vivid image of the influencer.
Likert-type scaleKim2022International Journal of Advertising
Unconditional self-acceptance‒ Being praised makes me feel more valuable as a person.
‒ I feel worthwhile even if I am not successful in meeting certain goals that are important to me.
‒ When I receive negative feedback, I take it as an opportunity to improve my behavior or performance.
‒ I feel that some people have more value than others.
‒ Making a big mistake may be disappointing, but it doesn’t change how I feel about myself overall.
‒ Sometimes I find myself thinking about whether I am a good or bad person.
‒ To feel like a worthwhile person, I must be loved by the people who are important to me.
‒ I set goals for myself with the hope that they will make me happy (or happier).
‒ I think that being good at many things makes someone a good person overall.
‒ My sense of self-worth depends a lot on how I compare with other people.
‒ I believe that I am worthwhile simply because I am a human being.
‒ When I receive negative feedback, I often find it hard to be open to what the person is saying about me.
‒ I set goals for myself that I hope will prove my worth.
‒ Being bad at certain things makes me value myself less.
‒ I think that people who are successful in what they do are especially worthwhile people.
‒ I feel that the best part about being praised is that it helps me to know what my strengths are.
‒ I feel I am a valuable person even when other people disapprove of me.
‒ I avoid comparing myself to others to decide if I am a worth-while person.
‒ When I am criticized or when I fail at something, I feel worse about myself as a person.
‒ I don’t think it’s a good idea to judge my worth as a person.
Likert-type scaleChamberlain & Haaga2001Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy
Understanding of persuasive and selling intent‒ The aim of this advertisement is to sell products/services.
‒ The aim of his advertisement is to stimulate the sales of products/services.
‒ The aim of this advertisement is to influence your opinion.
‒ The aim of this advertisement is to make people like certain products/services.
‒ The aim of this advertisement is to give information about products/services.
‒ The aim of this advertisement is to let people know more about the products/services.
Likert-type scaleTutaj et al.2012Journal of Marketing Communications
Value of the product‒ Not at all expensive / Very expensive.
‒ Poor value for the money / Good value for the money.
‒ A bad bargain / An excellent bargain.
Semantic differentialRaghubir & Srivastava2002Journal of Consumer Research
Visual complexity‒ The poster I saw was visually complex.
‒ The poster I saw had a lot going on.
‒ The poster I saw wasnot simple.
Likert-type scaleKetron2018Journal of Retailing
Voluntary simplicity‒ I believe in material simplicity, i.e., buying and consuming only what I need.
‒ I believe in “small is beautiful,” e.g., I prefer smaller cars over large cars.
‒ I believe that product function is usually more important than its style.
‒ I am interested in personal growth more than economic growth.
‒ I am determined to have more control over my life as a consumer, e.g., stay away from installment buying.
‒ I consider myself ecologically responsible.
Likert-type scaleShama & Wisenblit1984Psychological Reports
VulnerabilityHow likely is the following in these situations, do you think?
‒ My personal data can be used in ways I do not foresee.
‒ My personal information could be inappropriately used.
‒ My personal data could be misused.
‒ My personal data could be made available to government agencies.
‒ My personal information could be made available to unknown individuals or companies without my knowledge.
Likert-type scaleDinev & Hart2006Information Systems Research
WarmthTo what extent do you believe that (X) is:
‒ Warm.
‒ Kind.
‒ Generous.
Likert-type scaleAaker et al.2010Journal of Consumer Research